The Campbells, Part III

In this chapter, we narrow our investigation to a particular William Campbell and his possible immediate ancestors.

Chapter 3 – Campbells in the Americas

We now come to the most feasible ancestor of William’s lineage if we descend from Scottish nobility. As noted in the previous chapter, Duncan The Black was the son of Colin The Grey Campbell, 6th of Glenurchy and his wife Katherine Ruthven, and we’ll back up enough to focus on him before moving on.

But first let me just say that there is a rationale behind this seemingly rash assumption. At the time of these men’s lives, Patrick was a rare name. In my research, I’ve found only a few mentions of ‘Patrick” and in this time period, only in the House of Argyll, Clan Campbell. Duncan leads us to Patrick.

Unknown artist – Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy in 1601 at age 56 (1545–1631), Highland Improver – PG 2364 – National Galleries of Scotland  Wikipedia

SIR DUNCAN “The Black” CAMPBELL   

7 Aug 1550 -23 June 1631

Birth Place: Glenorchy, Argyllshire, Scotland   Death Date: 23 Jun 1631 Death Place: Glenorchy, Lorn, Argyll, Scotland

Death Age: 80

Father: Colin “The Grey” Campbell   Mother: Katherine Ruthven

Spouse: Jean/Janet Stewart (155?-1593), daughter of Earl John Stewart, 4th of Atholl & Lord Chancellor and Lady Elizabeth Gordon of Huntly. Married about December 1573 at Glenorchy.

Children: Margaret (1574-1598); Colin (1577-1640); Robert (1579-1657); Duncan (1580-1581); John (1581-1618); Jean (1584-1622); Archibald (1585-1640); Anne/Agnes (~1587-); Alexander Campbell (1589-1591); Duncan (1591-1591) Elizabeth (1593-1594).

Duncan was a busy fellow. After his wife Jean died in 1593, in October 1597, he married Lady Elizabeth Sinclair (1577-1654), daughter of Lord Henry Sinclair, 5th of Sinclair and Lady Elizabeth Forbes of Forbes. Their children were:

Patrick (1598-1648) on whom his father settled the lands of Edinample and others in 1624; John (1600-1631); William (1605-1620); Juliana (1606) Elizabeth (1608); Catharine (1610); Jean (1612).

Sowing his wild oats, Duncan also fathered two illegitimate sons by a woman named Janet Burdown, Patrick and John. More about these two later. These two wild oats sons are said to have been born before 1573 when Duncan married Lady Jean Stewart. Other records give Patrick’s birth date as 1592. [electricscotland.com/webclans/m/bighouse.pdf]

From The Scots Peerage, ed. By Sir James Balfour Paul, Vol II, Edinburgh, Scotland 1906, p 184-1889:

Sir Duncan Cambell of Glenurchy, the eldest son, born prior to 1555, received from his father dispositions of the lands of Port of Lochtay and others, and the barony of Finlarig, dated 5 March 1573-74, in implement of the contract of his marriage with Jean, daughter of John, Earl of Atholl, which was dated 18 November 1573. His father also disponed certain lands to that lady, in implement of said marriage contract, 20 November 1573.

  • He acquired the lands of Cretindewar and Craigvokin, 2 December 1575, bought from his brother, Archibald, as before mentioned a fourth part of Monzie, 21 August 1581.
  • On the occasion of the marriage of King James VI, he was knighted, about 17 May 1590.
  • He was one of the Lords of the Articles chosen to represent the barons in the Parliament held in Edinburgh in 1592, and was a commissioner for the smaller barons of Argyllshire to Parliament, 1593.
  • In 1594 he denied that he had any participation in the measures connected with the slaughter of the ‘Bonnie Earl of Moray.’
  • He also acquired from various parties certain lands in Menteith, Strathgartney and elsewhere.
  • King James feued [granted] to him the mill and mill lands of Mylnehorne.
  • On the resignation of Colin Campbell of Strachur, he acquired twenty-six merk lands in the barony of Glen Falloch; on the resignation of William Moncrieff of that Ilk, the lands of Culdares and Duneaves; and
  • On the resignation of William Moncrieff of that Ilk, the lands of Culdares and Duneaves
  • On the resignation of Alexander Balfour of Boghall, the lands of Emyrcrichane and Costinterrie in Menteith.
  • In 1599 he represented the smaller barons at the Convention of Estates of Parliament, and was a commissioner on the coin in that year.
  • He purchased from John, Earl of Atholl, and his wife, the lands of Wester Stuikis, on 18 September 1599.
  • He was warded in Edinburgh Castle in June 1601, “throch the occasion of certane fals leis and forged inventis,” and had to pay 40,000 merks to the courtiers of the King before he was released. Thereafter he went to England and Flanders for about a year.
  • Alexander Menzies of that Ilk, on 15 April 1602, sold to Sir Duncan in life rent, and his eldest son in fee, the lands of Morinche and others. He bought the lands of Drumquharg and others in the barony of Redgorton, 28 May 1611.
  • Two of his natural sons had letters of legitimation, 27 December 1614. They are Patrick and John.
  • He and his heirs-male were appointed foresters of Mamlorne, 22 July 1617
  • He acquired various lands in Strathgartney, 9 November 1618, and 31 October and 2 November 1618.
  • He purchased from Robert Robertson of Strowan, the four merk lands of Stronfernan, 21 December 1614, and the five merk lands of Candloch, 16 and 17 May 1616, and from Duncan Robertson, brother to Robert, Thometayvoir in Fernan, 14 August and ___ 1622.
  • He was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by patent dated 29 May 1625, and sealed 30 June 1627.

On 12 May 1627, King Charles I granted letters of remission to Sir Duncan, his sons Colin, Robert, and Patrick, and their natural brother, Patrick, for burning the town of Dewletter and the castle of Glenstrae in 1611, when engaged against the Clan Gregor.

Sir Duncan died at Balloch on 23 June 1631, aged eighty-one, and was buried in the chapel of Finlarig. His portrait, dated 1601, is given in the Black Book of Taymouth.

Kilchurn Castle

Duncan was chiefly known for his building of castles. In 1583 Duncan became the 7th Laird of Glenorchy at the death of his father, also inheriting Kilchurn Castle in Loch Awe, Argyll, Scotland and Balloch Castle in Kenmore, Perthshire, Scotland. It was also in 1583 that Duncan built Loch Dochart Castle in Stirlingshire, Scotland. Duncan now had three of his famed seven castles across Scotland.

“Loch Dochart is a fresh water loch fed by the River Fillan and connected to Loch Tay by the River Dochart. These waterways served as a major artery of movement and communication throughout the pre-industrial era and, via the River Tay, provided access all the way to the Firth of Tay and the North Sea. It was the presence of these excellent logistical links which prompted Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy to build the castle. It was one of several fortified residences – including Achallader, Barcaldine, Edinample, Finlarig and Monzie castles – raised by Duncan between 1585 and 1631.

“The castle was built on a small island at the western end of Loch Dochart. It was built over the site of an earlier religious house that was probably linked with St Fillan’s Priory, located four miles up-river. The main structure was a three story Tower House constructed from rubble with ashlar dressings. The rectangular main block was augmented with protruding stair towers on the north and south sides. A circular tower occupied the eastern corner at the base of which was a pit prison. A rectangular chimney that survives to its original height, projected out of the south side. The tower would have been surrounded by ancillary buildings and foundations of two of these structures survive. A landing place was constructed at the eastern end of the island.

Achallader Castle – It is accepted that the Fletcher’s, known then as Macinleister “were the first to ‘raise smoke and boil water’ on the Braes of Glenorchy” although the MacGregors were also a ruling Clan of the area in the 15th century. Sir Duncan Campbell of Glen Orchy acquired the castle and surrounding lands through his treachery and betrayal of the Chief of the Mcinleisters in 1587.” Wikipedia
Loch Dochart Castle

“Duncan Campbell was followed by his son, Robert, who was the owner during the Wars of Three Kingdoms. Robert was an active Covenanter and supporter of the Scottish Government which prompted the Royalist commander, John McNab, to burn Loch Dochart Castle in 1646. It was not rebuilt following this destruction and drifted into ruin. In more recent years the castle has traditionally been linked with the Scottish outlaw Rob Roy MacGregor who had supported the 1689, 1715 and 1719 Jacobite rebellions. However, by this stage the castle was a gutted ruin and it is unlikely there was any actual link. During the late nineteenth century the ruins were consolidated.”[1]

Monzie Castle

The rest of Duncan’s seven castles were: Finlarig, at the west end of Loch Tay and Barcaldine, in Benderloch. He obtained Achallader, on the north end of his lands, guarding the entrance to Rannoch, from the Fletcher Family by trickery in 1590. In 1590 Sir Duncan Campbell built Edinample Castle in Lochearnhead, Perthshire, Scotland. One year later in 1591 Duncan built Barcaldine Castle in Benderloch, Argyll, Scotland. At the age of 41 Duncan had six of his seven castles. In addition, he repaired and added to Kilchurn Castle. Because of this, he went by the name of ‘Duncan of the Castles.'” [Alastair Campbell, “A History of Clan Campbell,” vol. 2, p. 99 (Edinburgh Univ. Press; 2002)]

Barcaldine Castle   In 1692, the castle was attacked during the massacre of Glencoe. The castle fell into disrepair in the later 19th century, when Barcaldine House became the principal residence of the family. It was restored between 1897 and 1911. There is a ‘bottle’ dungeon and two hidden passageways.  Wikipedia

In 1609 Duncan had finished building his 7th and final castle, Finlarig Castle in Killin, Perthshire, Scotland, this one he made the family home. Duncan Campbell finally reached his goal, at the age of 59, of being able to cross his vast expanse of land from one end to the other being able to spend every night in his own castle on his own land.

He was known as Black Duncan, Black Duncan of the Cowl, and Black Duncan of the Castles

In 1593 Duncan Campbell was a Member of Parliament (MP).

– In 1617 Duncan was appointed Keeper of the Forest of Mamlorn, Bendaskerlie, Scotland.

– On 29 May 1625 Sir Duncan became 1st Baronet Campbell, of Glenorchy.

– Duncan was also one of the six guardians of the young and appointed Sheriff of Perth for life.

During his life Duncan was able to extend the family land holding from Barcaldine Caste in the West to Balloch Castle in the East reaching over 100 miles with 438,696 acres. Duncan was ruthless in his politics to gain what he wanted even to the point of trying to take control of the Clan Campbell by the murder of Campbell of Cawdor. Yet during all this he managed to remain in good favor with the monarchy of both Scotland and England.

Edinample Castle — Built on land acquired by the Campbells after their campaign for proscription, and the subsequent demise of the MacGregors. It is said that Black Duncan pushed the castle’s architect off the roof, in part to avoid paying him, but also because he omitted to construct the ramparts that had been requested. It is also said that the ghost of the builder has been seen walking on the roof near the aforesaid ramparts. https://www.scotland.org.uk/guide/castles/edinample-castle

At his death on 23 Jun 1631, Duncan Campbell was buried in his last castle Finlarig, which was the family home. According to the Black Book of Taymouth by Ines, Cosmo Nelson (1798-1874) published 1855, Duncan Campbell was buried in the Chapel Mausoleum.

Finlarig Castle   —  The castle is an L-plan tower-house, formerly protected by an outer enclosure or barmekin, which is now in a dangerously ruinous condition. It was one of many strongholds built in Argyll and Perthshire by the Campbells of Breadalbane. Near the Castle’s north wall is a stone-lined pit which, legend has it, was used for beheading prisoners of noble blood. Commoners were hanged on a nearby oak tree. Near the Castle are the remnants of the Breadalbane Mausoleum, a mock-Tudor chapel erected in 1829 on the site of an earlier chapel and burial place founded in 1523 by an ancestor of the Earls of Breadalbane, Sir Colin Campbell. Allowed to decay over many years, this brick-built building has almost completely collapsed.

The above information as well as the castle information was extracted from the following sources:

The Complete Baronetage

The Peerage

Burke’s Landed Gentry of Great Britain

The Black Book of Taymouth

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dark Isle

Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland

PATRICK CAMPBELL      +/-1592—March 28, 1678

Patrick Campbell, 1st of Barcaldine, was the ‘natural son’ [illegitimate] of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Baronet of Glenorchy and, allegedly, Janet Burdown. Born 1592 at Barcaldine, Ardchattan, Argyllshire, Scotland. He and his brother James were both legitimated on 27 Dec 1614. [Duncan and his wife Elizabeth Sinclair also legally parented a different Patrick b 1598 at Glenorchy and died before Dec 21, 1648 at Kilsyth. The legitimate Patrick married Margaret Campbell in 1625. Our narrative makes no further reference to the legitimate Patrick.]

From his father, the ‘natural’ Patrick received Inneerzeldies and other lands in Perthshire as well as Barcaldine Castle in Argyllshire. His nickname, “Para Dubh Beag,” means “Little Dark Pat.”

Source: Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition – Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes – Editor: Mosley, Charles – Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A., 2003 volume 1, page 668

In 1620, Patrick married Annabel Campbell (1601-), daughter of Alexander Campbell, 7th captain of Dunstaffnage, and Ann Campbell 1564-. Patrick and Annabel had four children:

1. Jean Campbell

2. Giles Campbell

3. Annabella Campbell

4. John Campbell, 2nd of Barcaldine (c. 1625- c. 1690)

Patrick then married Bethia Murray (d 1632), daughter of William Murray of Ochtertyre and Barbara Pitcairn. http://www.thepeerage.com/p51908.htm #i519079  (According to these records, she married Patrick Murray, so…more than one) Patrick Campbell and Bethia had:

  • Colin Campbell, minister of Ardchattan (d. March 1726)
  • William “Dubh Beg” Campbell, minister of Balquhidder (1592-
  • Mary Campbell b 1640
  • Elizabeth Campbell (Married Sir John Campbell, 10th of Glenorchy, Baronet (1615-1677/1686) with children Elspeth; Patrick; Colin; William; Walter; Geills: Marjory

[From: The Peerage, M, #201145; Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage. 1898 ed. 60:252.]

At the death of their father Duncan, June 23, 1631, Patrick’s older brother, Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy became new clan chief. Patrick traded the lands of Innerzeldies with Colin for the lands of Barcaldine. Patrick’s half-brother John was actually the first Baillie of Barcaldine. He had been granted the lands of Auchintyre by Duncan, but left no descendants which is probably the reason for the exchange of lands between Patrick and Sir Colin.

In 1644 Patrick was given 666 pounds sterling by Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy to fund a unit of Barcaldine men to join Argyll’s troop into England against the Royalists at the start of the English Civil War. [From: The heraldry of the Campbells: with notes on all the males of the family, descriptions of the arms, page 55]

  • 1633:    Occupation — a Commissioner for the suppression of Clan Gregor

Sources: Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition – Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes – Editor: Mosley, Charles – Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A., 2003 – volume 1, page 494

  • Residence – Edinample, Scotland

Sources: Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition – Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes – Editor: Mosley, Charles – Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A., 2003 – volume 1, page 494

  • 21 December 1648:      Death — killed in action, as a Covenanter

Sources: Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition – Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes – Editor: Mosley, Charles – Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A., 2003 – volume 1, page 494

  • Note: He had two sons

Sources: Burke’s Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition – Burke’s Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes – Editor: Mosley, Charles – Burke’s Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A., 2003 – volume 1, page 494

Here is the theory:

Patrick Campbell had an illegitimate son or grandson named Patrick Campbell who ended up in Barbados, Caribbean. Pure speculation. Chances are that the Barbados Patrick is no direct relation to Patrick Campbell, natural son of Duncan. But we will proceed with our tenuous theory.

First, the background of Scots in the Caribbean, taken from http://www.newworldcelts.org/caribbean.html:

“The Scottish connection with the Caribbean started in 1611 with the voyage to the West Indies of the Janet of Leith. It was not until after 1626, however, that Scots actually settled in the Caribbean. In 1627 King Charles I appointed a Scot, James Hay, Earl of Carlisle, as Governor of the Caribbees. This appointment led to a steady migration of Scots to Barbados and other islands. While there was a degree of voluntary emigration, the majority of the Scots in the West Indies arrived unwillingly. In 1654, Oliver Cromwell transported five hundred Scots prisoners-of-war. Felons or political undesirables, such as the Covenanters, were sent to the islands in chains directly from Scotland. In addition, the English Privy Council regularly received petitions from planters requesting Scottish indentured servants. Because of this, a steady stream of indentured servants sailed from Scottish and English ports to the West Indies.

“During the 1660s the Glasgow-based organization called the Company Trading to Virginia, the Caribbee Islands, Barbados, New England, St. Kitts, Montserrat, and Other Colonies in America established economic links with the West Indies. By the latter part of the seventeenth century, Scots merchants, planters, seafarers, and transportees were to be found throughout the English and Dutch colonies of the Caribbean. In total, it is believed that as many as 5,000 Scots settled temporarily or permanently in the Caribbean before the Act of Union in 1707. The settlement of Scots in the West Indies was important from the point of view both of the colonist and the home country. Many of the colonists used the islands as a stopping-off point before continuing on to the mainland of America, where they then settled. Alexander Hamilton and Theodore Roosevelt are numbered among those who descend from Scots who initially settled in the Caribbean.

“Barbados Redlegs . As the demand for sugar grew so did the demand for labor, and it became the custom to “transport” political dissidents, felons, and other undesirables as an alternative to hanging. Oliver Cromwell “barbadoed” hundreds, and these were later joined by the remnants of the Army of the Duke of Monmouth, sent there after the Battle of Sedgemoor by Judge Jeffreys in 1686. Few survived in the climate, and although some of their descendants can still be seen in Barbados, where they are called “Redlegs,” another source of labor was sought, and it was found in Africa.

“Colonization of Barbados began in February 1626/7 with the arrival of the William and Mary, containing eighty settlers and ten negro slaves. Other vessels immediately followed, and a list of inhabitants possessing over ten acres each names 758 settlers living there in 1638. (This list was published in William Duke, Memoirs of the First Settlement of the Island of Barbadoes (I 743), and has been reprinted in NEHGR XXXIX:132-44.)

“Henry Whistler’s journal for March 1654/5 records of Barbados, “This Island is inhabited with all sortes: with English, french, Duch, Scotes, Irish, Spaniards thay being lues: with Ingones and miserabell Negors borne to perpetuall slauery.”

“Civil strife in England brought successive waves of emigrants: discontented Scots under the Stuarts, Cromwell’s opponents, Protestants following the bloody Monmouth reprisals, indentured servants, transported “vagrants, rogues and idle persons”, and various sorts of opportunists. These brought the white population to over 20,000, where it remained until near the end of the century.

“In this, its ‘golden age”, Barbados became the richest colony in English America-thanks largely to Sephardic Jewish capital, Brazilian Dutch expertise, and a thriving slave trade-and its most populous, except for Massachusetts and Virginia.

“…According to A. D. Chandler, “In the years 1660 to 1667 some ten thousand people, mainly landless freemen and small farmers, left Barbados, followed in 1668 to 1672 by four to five thousand people, mainly of the planter class, and in 1678 to 1681 by another two thousand planters.” (“Expansion of Barbados”, in Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society XIII:II4, 124-34.)

“The generous provisions of the ‘Act to encourage the bringing in of Christian servants to this Island’ of June 20, 1696 brought in over 2,000 white servants. These were expected, at the end of their periods of indenture, to go off “as is customary … to Pensilvania, Carelena, and other Northern Colonies where provisions are more plenty and weather more temperate.” (C.O. 28:6.)”

Current research finds the following:

From: Caribbean, Select Births and Baptisms, 1590-1928

Name: Patric Campel

Arrival Year:   1679

Arrival Place: Barbados

Primary Immigrant: Campel, Patric

Family Members:        Wife Ann

Source Publication Code:       3283

Annotation: Standard work. Includes lists of ships to Bermuda, Barbados, and continental North America. Indexes family names. Names of Jews are excerpted in Adler, no. 61. Care should be taken when using Hotten. There are two versions, one with accurate text and inde

Source Bibliography:          HOTTEN, JOHN CAMDEN, editor. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality; Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. With Their Ages, the Localities Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in Which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars. From MSS. Preserved in the State

Ann [McCoy] Campbell, wife of Patrick Campbell was buried Aug 4, 1679, St. Michaels Parish, Barbados

Soon after Ann’s death, Patrick and John Campbell arrived in the Virginia colony. Were these the same Patrick and John?

Attempts to answer these questions have occupied multiple researchers. The following from Tidewater Virginia Families by Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis, published by Genealogical Publishing Company 1989. From Chapter 13 on the Campbells, pages 341-343:

  • Patrick Campbell probably came to Essex County after 1679. The death of his wife Ann occurred in St. Michael’s Parish, Barbados. “Ann Cambel wife of Patric buried 4 Aug 1679.” This may have been the same Patrick Campbell who owned land on Hoskins Creek [VA] and was identified as having married Sarah Kilman of Essex County in April 1691. She was the orphan of John Kilman, deceased, as her estate was held in the custody of Captain Thomas Goldman.
  • Patrick Campbell died by February 1695, on which date John Cammill and Sarah, his wife, purchased a moiety of land from Sarah’s sister, Ann (and husband Samuel Harware). [Moiety is a type of title to real estate in which the owner owns a share of the total land on the title and leases a certain portion of the land back for themselves from the other owner(s).]  The land had been left them by their brother, George Kilman.
  • John Campbell was married first to Mary, sister of Sarah, who had died earlier. In 1697, John and Sarah sold the land to Henry Pickett that had belonged first to her father then to her brother. This land was “back in the woods” in the freshes of Pascatacon creek (later known as Cox’s creek.) Thomas Parker and John Gatewood were two of the witnesses to the deed. [more about the Kilman land]
  • John Campbell was living in 1705 when he witnessed a will in Essex County. He died before Feb 10, 1707 when “Sarah Camiell of the Parish of South Farnham in the County of Essex, widow’” sold 57 acres of land…
  • Later entries in the Essex Co court records show the following Campbell men and date of record: William 1707, John 1717, George 1717, Patrick 1718, and Alexander 1717 were in the county and transacted business. [describes land purchased]
  • [Text speculates that] James (estate appraised 1750), John. George II and Patrick were sons of Sarah.

Material by another researcher:

Patrick Campbell (no birth date-died before Oct 1691) married first to Sarah Kilman, d/o John Kilman of Essex Co, VA. They married in Essex Co VA on March 04, 1689/90. They had one child, Mary. Patrick died leaving Sarah Kilman Campbell a widow with one little girl.

John Campbell married Sarah’s sister, Mary Kilman before 1691, and had one son named John Campbell. But Mary Kilman Campbell died, leaving John Campbell a widower with a small son. So the two surviving partners married to keep the kids and the inheritance together. They married before October 11, 1692.

Genealogist Shirley Thompson Craft (STC) went to both Essex Co and Caroline Co VA and found all the marriage and land deeds and court documents which prove all of this.

  • There is not found a record of the country where Patrick and John left to come to Virginia. There is speculation Patrick is the same person named in the book, Barbados and Scotland Links 1627-1877 by David Dobson, as the widower of Ann Campbell who died in 1679 at St. Michael’s, Barbados.

Separately, but believed connected, by same researcher:

“A John Bayley was listed as a grantor in a land transaction in Old Rappahannock County in 1684. The entry in the court order book indicated that his real name was Camell, though he was forced by his brother to call himself Bayley. His name was legally changed to Camell. John Bayley was mentioned twice in the court orders of Essex County, but the entry concerning his name change was recorded in Embry’s Index and was not found in the court orders, nor was there any further.

“Did he arrive in the Colony as “Bayley?” I have found record of transport of “Jno. Bayley” in Feb. 1666; Jan. 1667; Oct. 1675; and 1678 in Cavaliers and Pioneers, but no record of Patrick Cammel on the same dates. Were John and Patrick brothers? Half-brothers? [Quoting STC in the following.]

  • According to (Old) Rappahannock Co., VA Orders (1683-1686) – “2 April 1684 – Whereas John Camell hath a long time been wrongfully called by the name of John Bayley, who came to this country as a lad, was forced by his brother (as he pretends) to change his name – therefore, he, the said Camell, did in open Court utterly deny and renounce the name of Bayley and do declare his name to be John Camell.”
    • [Denele’s comment: Barbados baptism record of John, son of Patrick is dated 1677. Eighteen years later would be 1695, so this is not the same person. That leaves the question of what happened to Patrick’s son John if the same Patrick came to VA with John, suggesting this is not the same Patrick. Or that Patrick and John were brothers, and Patrick’s son John had died? No record of his death. Or that the Patrick whose son John was baptized in 1677 was a different Patrick than the one who came to VA.]
  • Breaking this Order down, we know John Camell had to be of age before he could take this matter to Court on his own. So, we can estimate he was older than 18 years in 1684. This was important to him that he probably took this to court right away so did not own any land under the name of “John Bayley.”
  • The Order clearly states he came to this “country as a lad.” So, this tells us he was younger than 16 and dependent on his brother. Another obvious fact is we know he was not married. And, it clearly lets us know HE WAS NOT A PRISONER. [Many Scotsmen sent to the Caribbean were prisoners.]
  • It may appear that John Campbell and his brother Patrick entered Essex County from Barbados, Caribbean 1679. We believe that they got off the boat at Port Royal without having to show any immigration papers or any type of documentation. To travel to and from any of the British Colonies required no papers for British subjects until after the Revolutionary War.

Records for John Bayley/Campbell in VA include those named above, that he came to the colonies “as a lad” and that his brother, assumed to be Patrick, had forbidden him the last name of Campbell. Most compelling is the marriage record of Patrick and John Campbell with the Kilman sisters:

Patrick married Sarah Kilman in 1691. They had Mary. He died before 1695.

John married Sarah’s sister Mary Kilman. They had John. She also died.

John married Sarah before 1696-7, putting the children Mary and John in the same household and uniting properties and inheritance. 

  • Name: John Cammill; Spouse’s Name: Sarah (his father’s 2nd wife) Marriage Date: 1696 Marriage Place: Old Rappahannock and Essex Counties   Comment: Sarah, dau. John Kilman. Virginia, Compiled Marriages for Select Counties, Book D Original Source Page 74
    • Sarah and John had two children: George Thomas Campbell 1700 Essex, VA and William Campbell 1702, Essex, VA

Land records find John and Sarah’s properties:

  • 1696/97 On Jan 20, John (X his mark) Camell, and Sarah his wife, of Southfarnham Parish, Essex County, for 2700 pounds of tobacco, convey to Henry Pickett , of the same parish and county, 100 acres in said Farnham parish, Essex county, back in the woods of Piscatacon Creek being part of land formerly belonging to John Kilman, father of the said Sarah Camell, and which descended on death of said John to his son George Kilman, by whose death it descended to his sister the said Sarah Camell; said land adjoins John Mitchell’s land, a branch called the Greene Swamp and the Beverdam Swamp. One of the witnesses to this deed was a Sarah Pickett.
  • 1697 On May 10, John Campell and Sarah Kilman Campbell, his wife, appeared and acknowledged deed of sale of land to Henry Pickett … ordered recorded. The land, on Pascatacon Creek (later known as Cox’s Creek) was previously owned by George Kilman.

John Campbell died in 1707. Sarah remained in the same area and died in Caroline Co. in 1751. Wm Campbell petitioned the court to allow him to be the administrator of the estate. …

The business affairs of George and William Campbell were linked several times, and in 1752, Geo. had stored Wm’s tobacco for him. George II and his wife Caty [is this Elizabeth? Or Margaret?] sold land W. Deshazo in 1753. In 1767, William and his wife Elizabeth sold land to Anthony Thornton. It is thought that after 1767, both George II and William may have left the county, as their names did not seem to appear in the court records.

~~~

I have found ZERO additional records for William Campbell b 1702. However, there are compelling records for other Williams born 1730 and 1740, sons of George. We’re looking for John W. Campbell born 1730 who connects with previous ancestry. The 1730 John Campbell is most likely the son of the 1702 William Campbell, OR he could be the son of 1700 George.

  • John W. Campbell 1730-1805, King and Queen Court House, King and Queen, VA, son of William Campbell. To confuse matters even more thoroughly, William Campbell 1730-1805, believed brother to Whitaker Campbell 1727-1814, living in Old New Kent County, VA. Records show William gained 918 acres of land in 1782, a tract later called Shooter’s Hill. He married his first wife, Elizabeth Watkins and had John Campbell, who moved to Kentucky.
  • William Campbell, b 1740, was the son of George Campbell and Margaret __. He married Elizabeth Campbell and Mary Campbell. His children were John W. Campbell, Sr.; William Campbell; Elizabeth Campbell; James Campbell; Joseph Campbell and 6 others. Brother of Margaret Kincaid Tincher; Thomas Campbell; Archibald Campbell; James Campbell; Ruth Campbell; William Campbell; Joseph Campbell; Catherine Campbell; John Campbell.
  • Other records find William Campbell 1760-1806 married Elizabeth Watkins. This record states that William was the son of George 1700-1749 and Ann / Elizabeth Whitaker, who also had Whitaker b 1727 as brother to William 1730 and Joseph b 1740 linked by DNA to Whitaker. Which is absurd considering George died in 1749 and this Wm was born 11 years later. There was another George who died in 1777, so…

Possible Ancestry for John Campbell 1795-1850:

Is our ancestry from the 1740 William Campbell as the grandfather of John W. Campbell Jr. 1792, Hopkinsville, Christian Co, KY? Is the 1792 John W. Campbell the son of John W. Campbell Sr. and Elizabeth? It seems a definite ‘yes’ as John Sr. and wife Elizabeth’s children were Catherine 1784; George K. 1786; Benjamin P. 1787; William M. 1787; John W. 1792; Margaret 1796; Elizabeth Jane 1798.

Here’s the record:

John W. Campbell Sr. was son of William and Eliza Watkins Campbell. William died in 1805 of “sickness.” Records for William Campbell 1730-1805 King and Queen, VA, and Eliza Watkins 1736-1770 state that their son “John Campbell moved to Kentucky” Campbell-Watkins Records, (135) The Campbell Family, Old Kent County [Virginia]: Some Account of the Planters, Plantations, and Places” Vol. 1, p 494-495; Malcolm Harris 2006.

Is William the son of George Campbell (b 1700 Augusta Co. VA-1777 Amherst Co. VA) and Margaret Henderson?

Several records state George was son of Colonel Patrick Campbell I and Delilah Campbell. Husband of Margaret Henderson. Father of Archibald Campbell, Jr; Margaret Kincaid Tincher; Thomas Campbell; James Campbell; Ruth Campbell; William Campbell; Joseph Campbell; Catherine Campbell; John Campbell. [ Brother of Maj. Charles Campbell, of Beverley Manor; James Campbell; Griselda Abay McCutchen; Jane Campbell; William Campbell; Martha Campbell; Patrick Campbell, Jr.; Mary ‘Molly’ Christian (Campbell); Elizabeth Anderson and Margaret Sarah Steele. Half-brother of Percival Adam Campbell.]

We have not found any records verifying that George was the son of Patrick Campbell.

  • George’s will of May 5, 1777 named his wife Margret, daughter Catherine, son John, and other children Elizabeth, Archibald, George, Edley, Thomas, Margaret, and Ruth. Court records Amhurst Co, VA
  • Three children named in the will are not in the genealogical listing: Elizabeth, George, Edley. But then, three of those in the listing do not appear in the will: James, William, Joseph.
  • The will states that “in case any of the named children abscond or entirely go off before they come of age, then such child or children shall not receive on farthing.”

Of interest in the family of George are his brothers William and Patrick.

  • Or is this William the son of George Campbell (1700-1749), son of John Campbell and Sarah Kilman of Essex Co., VA?
    • George was husband of Elizabeth Catlett, father of James, William, and George Washington Campbell Jr.
    • George Sr.’s will was probated 10 Nov. 1749 naming James Campbell and Elizabeth, the widow, as executors. Elizabeth relinquished her right and an “heir-at-law” (not named) contested the probate, but the will was proved by William Deshazo, Morris Campbell, and Elinor Deshazo (wife of William Deshazo) per Caroline County court orders. Was the “heir-at-law” William or George (b. 1720)??? [Caroline Order Bk, p. 179 STC 2016]
    • His will was proved 11-10-1749. His wife Elizabeth was executor, along with James Campbell. Their sons were: George Campbell Jr (m. Caty) they moved to Piney River, Amherst Co VA; William Campbell (m. Elizabeth) who died in Amherst Co VA, November 1785; and James Campbell.
    • Ordered to appraise the state of George Campbell of Caroline Co, VA, Dec 1749, William Lawson, Charles Holloway, George Todd and William Buckner—pg 342 Tidewater Virginia Families by Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis—Genealogy Publishing Co, Inc

U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s Name: George Campbell Arrival year: 1743 Arrival Place: Virginia Primary Immigrant: Campbell, George Source Publication Code: 1229.10 Source Bibliography: COLDHAM, PETER WILSON. The Kings Passengers to Maryland and Virginia. Westminister, MD: Family Line Publications, 1997. 450p.

Virginia, Land, Marriage, and Probate Records, 1639-1850 Name: George Campbell Date: 19 Mar 1764 Location: Augusta Co., VA Property: 129 acres on the Pine Run on the south side of Beverley Manor in a line of Charles Campbell, and of James Robinson. Notes: This land record was originally published in Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia, 1745-1800. Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County by Lyman Chalkley. Remarks: 50 Description: Witness Book: 11-535

Note: it was the personal research of Shirley Thompson Craft, licensed genealogist, and descendant of George Campbell, as well as book author on her ancestors, who discovered in the summer of 2011 that this George Campbell 1720-1791 had originated in Caroline County, Virginia before moving into the area of Piney River, Amherst County, Virginia. Shirley Thompson Craft has been instrumental in groundbreaking discoveries, based on court documents and evidence which formed the basis of understanding about who the ancestors of George Campbell were.

Parents of George Campbell are John Campbell (no birth date-died abt 1706 VA) and Sarah Kilman.

Background: 

The following are notations from what Essex and Caroline records STC has found so far to mention a William Campbell during the same generation as George (d. abt. 1749):

WILLIAM CAMPBELL (JOHN, UNKNOWN CAMMEL) Born abt. 1694 Essex Co., VA; died 1752 Caroline Co. VA

1743 Aug. 12 – Caroline County Order p. 212 – “Marear a negro girl belonging to William Cammell adjudged 12 years old.” No other comment.

9 July 1748 – Caroline Co. Order Book 1746-1654 – Action of debt. William Hunter agt. William Campbell p. 77.

15 July 1749 – Petition. John Sutherland agt. William Campbell. Judgment is granted the plaintiff for 2 pounds 1.3 current money .

1751 – Sarah Campbell died; William Campbell executor of her estate. Per Colonial Caroline by T. E. Campbell.

16 Dec 1752 – Suit on attachment. Robert Jackson agt. estate of William Campbell. The plaintiff proving his account, judgment is granted him 3 pounds current money. The sheriff attached a parcel of tobacco and fodder in the hands of George Campbell. It’s ordered the Sheriff to cause the tobacco to be sold. Ibid, p. 372. (Note: This George would have been George, Jr. because George, William’s brother died in 1749.)

1753 – William Campbell had died in late 1752 in Caroline Co. VA. Caroline Co. records name George Campbell, Jr. as executor of William’s estate.

8 Feb. 1753 – Suit on attachment. Mordica Abraham agt. the estate of William Camble. The plaintiff proving his account, judgment is granted him for 1 pound 17.9 current money. Ibid.

I believe the William who migrated to Amherst County about 1764 with wife Elizabeth to be William, Jr., grandson of John and Sarah. Shirley Thompson Craft, Jan. 2020. From https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Campbell-33752

Full record of STC and other research on this lineage of Patrick/John/George is in my document “John Campbell aka Bailey”—Denele           

Can we go further back than Patrick and John in Barbados? Not really. Many records attribute Patrick’s ancestry to Patrick Campbell (1592-1678), styled 1st of Barcaldine as discussed in the previous section. He was the ‘natural son’ [illegitimate] of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Baronet of Glenorchy, and there is great temptation to latch onto this ancestry. But there is every reason to find this implausible. For one, records in Scotland track the lifetime of Patrick 1592-1678 remaining in Scotland.

However, this does not rule out some kind of relationship between Barbados Patrick and Patrick the bastard son of Duncan. Perhaps Duncan’s Patrick had illegitimate issue of his own, not recorded in official documents. The most compelling evidence, aside from the name, is the time frame. Patrick son of Duncan was in his prime circa 1630 when the Barbados Patrick was allegedly born (according to one source). Taking this theory a bit further, Barbados Patrick and his brother John could easily have been sent there by Patrick son of Duncan in order to sidetrack any problems. They would have lived with their mother until of a certain age, then transported to a family plantation in Barbados.

There is nothing in the records of Virginia’s John Bailey/Bayley Campbell and Patrick Campbell that designates their ages. In fact, their death dates with their presumed births around 1670 means they died in their mid-30s, which is unusual. It would be more reasonable to assume an earlier birth date, and that they arrived in Barbados by 1650-1660.

It’s interesting to note that one entry in the Caribbean, Select Births and Baptisms, 1590-1928 lists Patrick Campbell was the father of John, baptized in 1677. In total, the text lists 17 entries for Campbell in the 1600s:

  • Alexander d 1677;
  • Alexander m 1689;
  • Alice wife of Patrick d 1691;
  • Ann wife of Patrick d 1679;
  • Daniel m 1663 to Mary Fenton;
  • Daniel m 1664 to Mary Gibbs,
  • Daniel husband to Anne, parents to Daniel 1674 and Charles 1677;
  • Daniel m 1697 to Avis Lord;
  • Dougal husband of Mary, parents of several children between 1660 and 1684, and a militiaman in 1679;
  • Duncan m 1671 to Susanna;
  • Edward m 1674;
  • James militiaman 1680;
  • John referred to in Daniel Campbell’s will 1668;
  • John militiaman 1679 (listed twice);
  • Patrick as noted above;
  • Robert militiaman 1679;
  • William mariner from Dumbarton to Barbados 1667

We must move on from this conundrum of Patrick, John, William and other Campbells which were thick on the ground in the newly won United States of America by the turn of the 19th century.


[1] http://www.castlesfortsbattles.co.uk/central_west_scotland/loch_dochart_castle.html

2 Comments

  1. Impeccable scholarship Denele! Here is a Campbell you may not know about, from Wikipedia-

    Major Sir Malcolm Campbell MBE (11 March 1885 – 31 December 1948) was a British racing motorist and motoring journalist. He gained the world speed record on land and on water at various times, using vehicles called Blue Bird, including a 1921 Grand Prix Sunbeam. His son, Donald Campbell, carried on the family tradition by holding both land speed and water speed records.

     

    Reply

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