It should be obvious that everyone in the nation—everyone in the world—benefits when Americans go to college. Americans have earned a reputation for inventiveness and technological advances. Are we ready to give that up?
Back in the day, when the average U.S. worker did just fine with a high school education (or less), the few who went to college were easily subsidized by state taxes up to 80% of the cost. But as the world became increasingly technological, as science became multiple branches of study of everything from our genetic code to the finer points of interstellar rocketry, more and more young people wanted to know more than what high school could teach them.
Few among us want to go back to time when our food supply depended on a plow and a mule and day after day of unrelenting labor, when lights went out with sunset, when one out of every one hundred women died from childbirth. We may feel stressed with the pace of life, but we cannot turn back the tide of progress. The alternative to progress is stagnation, or at worst, destruction.
The United States is slipping behind other nations in the educational achievements of its young people. Rather than analyzing and correcting the reasons behind this decline, our elected leaders succumb to the easy way out which is to facilitate the transfer of tax dollars to private schools and relegate college funding to high-interest loans.
The reluctance, and in many cases the angry protests, of conservatives to support reduction of student loan debt is yet another example of the shortsightedness of this particular slice of our population. These same folks are eager to take advantage of the latest pharmaceuticals, the newest technology in cell phones and digital conveniences/entertainment, as if it all sprang fully formed from the head of Zeus. News flash: These and the many other advancements we enjoy every day are the result of people going to college.
Why would we want to strangle the future our young people can offer?
It could be that there’s a subconscious inclination among conservatives to dig in their heels and not go into that promising future. Maybe the reluctance to facilitate college education is a rejection of modern life and its collection of pros and cons, and instead nostalgia for a long-lost past where completing 8th grade was the biggest accomplishment anyone could expect. That wasn’t so long ago, back when most families lived on a farm and grew most of their own food, when telephones and electricity didn’t exist. But not even the most radical conservative is ready to give up the morning shower, or their cell phone, or the motor vehicle that takes them wherever they want to go.
Progress means finding solutions to problems large and small, problems like Covid 19 (SARS-CoV-2), a virus that so far has left a million Americans dead. In less than a year, our college grads developed a vaccine that provides protection from death and, in most cases, protection from infection, by this virus. Are we ready to give up that kind of science?
The U. S. has to choose whether to continue to lag behind other nations in supporting the education of its young. President Biden and Democrats in general have supported this modest reduction of student loan debt. But over half of student loans will remain to be paid, racking up compound interest that increases the amount owed faster than payments can be made.
It’s a rigged system. Student loans, unlike any other loan, cannot be written off in a bankruptcy, so even when illness or other tragedies of life crash down on a person’s shoulders, those student loans still must be paid. The cost of higher education continues to increase as colleges try to accommodate the loss of state funding while still providing the advanced education students need.
Higher education is the path to future successes for our nation, not only in medicine but in every other aspect of our civilization. Our supply of food and water will increasingly depend on how well we can mitigate the damage caused by climate change. Our health depends on our ability to stave off more exotic viruses. We need to know more about the causes of diseases like cancer, tuberculosis and Alzheimer’s. When we encourage the pursuit of higher education, we not only address future needs for food and medicine, but also provide for an endless advancement of every aspect of human existence.
We need to move our thinking away from the idea that college is ‘extra.’ While we will always need workers skilled in certain trades that are better taught through vocational schools and apprenticeship, increasingly we need people who can program software, refine microchips, and analyze the human genome. And never forget the thousands of college graduates we rely on every day: doctors and dentists, lawyers and judges, engineers and architects, chemists and researchers, managers and accountants, historians and diplomats, psychologists and psychiatrists, and teachers—to name a few.
It is past time for our educational system to provide affordable college education. One way or the other, a student’s cost for college has to return to a reasonable amount—if not free. States need to shoulder more of the burden, as they did before Reaganomics took effect. Lenders for student loans need to be limited to a one-time charge of interest. Colleges need to find ways to reduce costs.
We face a national emergency in education. Public school teachers need much better pay. Taxpayer funds must never be diverted to private schools which don’t have to accommodate special needs students or which promulgate narrow belief systems. As long as our brightest minds are handicapped by the cost of college education, our nation suffers.
The proud image of our nation, which conservatives love to flag-wave about, is not only about those hardworking linemen, farmers, plumbers and other ‘blue-collar’ jobs, but also about the college grads who figured out how to engineer a tractor that can be operated from an air-conditioned cab while pulling a ten-row cultivator, or who calculated the weight and conductivity of wires to carry our power grid, or who invented flex lines and connector glue to replace labor/cost-intensive copper pipe fittings. It takes all of us.
It’s not a student’s fault that the government shifted student loans over to private lenders who started increasing the interest rates on the loans. It’s also beyond a student’s power to determine what college costs. In 1980, the price to attend a four-year college full-time was $10,231 annually—including tuition, fees, room and board, and adjusted for inflation—according to the National Center for Education Statistics. By 2019-20, the total price increased to $28,775. That’s a 180% increase.
Needless to say, the income to be earned with the degree did not also increase by 180%.
Tuition prices alone increased 36% from 2008 to 2018, while the real median income in the U.S. grew just over 2.1% in the same period, according to data from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Zane Heflin, policy analyst at The New Center and author of the report titled “The New American Dream: Alleviating the Student Debt Crisis,” says the ramifications of the 2008 Great Recession are still hitting the higher education world, and students are paying the price.
“The two main drivers of the rising cost of tuition are reduced state funding and the incentive for tuition raises as an unrestricted revenue to benefit colleges,” meaning colleges can choose to spend tuition money however they wish, Heflin says. “States and local communities are spending less per student. Someone has to take on that cost, and unfortunately it’s been the student.”
A 2019 report from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities points to cuts in statewide higher education funding for the rapid tuition increase in the last decade.
“Overall state funding for public two- and four-year colleges in the school year ending in 2018 was more than $6.6 billion below what it was in 2008 just before the Great Recession fully took hold, after adjusting for inflation,” the report reads. “In the most difficult years after the recession, colleges responded to significant funding cuts by increasing tuition, reducing faculty, limiting course offerings, and in some cases closing campuses.”
One way or the other, all of us will pay for this outrageous increase in costs for college. One way we’ll pay is to not have access to physicians, dentists, engineers, architects, therapists and counselors, school teachers (happening now), and other professionals who learn what they must know by going to college.
Don’t want to subsidize college education? Schedule an appointment with your friendly plumber for your next dental care.
A second way to address this issue would be for those professionals to charge a lot more when you obtain their services. If you think medical care or attorneys’ fees are high now, just wait until the cost of college means fewer professionals available for your needs AND the higher costs the remaining professionals will charge you.
A third route to address student debt is for policy makers to move past partisan bickering to formulate realistic policy changes regarding higher education. One option would be to remove interest from student loans, or fix it at a very low rate, in order to reduce the cost. It is absurd to allow higher education debt to exist in a marketplace alongside, for example, consumer debt. The need for a new car or a vacation in the Bahamas is far less a priority than the societal need for medical science researchers.
Another option for policymakers would be to reformulate the Pell grant program, expanding the amounts it provides to a more realistic total and allowing the grants to cover graduate school. Perhaps even more critical is the need for government to control the interest rates on student loans. Interest on graduate loans are higher than on undergraduate loans, yet a growing majority of jobs—public school teachers, for example—demand a master’s degree plus regular continuing education credits. Currently, unsubsidized loans for graduate students have a 6.54% interest rate (for the 2022-2023 academic year), while undergraduate students get a 4.99% rate on both unsubsidized and subsidized loans.
The topic again brings up the comparison between the United States and other nations which provide free college. Even India provides free higher education.
But even if compromise is the only way forward, the U. S. needs to develop a plan that does not bury the poorest students in debt. Sliding scale tuition is one idea. There are already Pell Grants, which provide some money for poor students toward the costs of higher education, and expanding those grants to apply to a broader need is a good point to consider. After decades of providing free college, Britain has taken this approach with policies where “students pick up the bill for, on average, around 65 percent of the cost of the education they receive, with taxpayers plugging the gap. More students are enrolled than ever before and those students benefit from more per student funding than the generations that paid nothing for college.” 
According to a recent article at online magazine The Best Schools:
“Why is college so expensive? There are a lot of reasons — growing demand, rising financial aid, lower state funding, the exploding cost of administrators, bloated student amenities packages. The most expensive colleges — Columbia, Vassar, Duke — will run you well over $50K a year just for tuition. That doesn’t even include housing!
“…Administrative costs: These costs account for roughly $23,000 per student every year. This is double the amount that Finland, Sweden or Germany — all boasting top-performing education cultures — spend on the same essentials.
“[Yet] professor salaries have barely budged since 1970. According to the New York Times, “salaries of full-time faculty members are, on average, barely higher than they were in 1970. Moreover, while 45 years ago 78 percent of college and university professors were full time, today half of postsecondary faculty members are lower-paid part-time employees, meaning that the average salaries of the people who do the teaching in American higher education are actually quite a bit lower than they were in 1970.”
“By contrast, ‘According to the Department of Education data, administrative positions at colleges and universities grew by 60 percent between 1993 and 2009, which Bloomberg reported was 10 times the rate of growth of tenured faculty positions.’ The New York Times uses the massive California State University system as a case example, noting that between 1975 and 2008, the number of faculty grew from 11,614 to 12,019. By quite a sharp contrast, the total number of administrators grew from 3,800 to 12,183. That’s a 221% increase.”
These increases are driven by greater demand. As society advances with more technological change, fewer jobs are available to those who do not have a college education. Yes, vocational training and trade schools are important, and those programs should be respected and made available as early as high school. In many states, trades like carpentry and electricians are part of apprenticeship programs subsidized and integrated with unions. Right-to-work states suffer the loss.
Finally, it is incumbent on loan and grant programs as well as colleges and universities to ensure that borrowing students receive clear information about their debt. Many financial aid counselors, especially in public universities, fail miserably in providing necessary information as well as making sure that students have a real-world understanding of the debt they’re incurring.
As summarized in Prudential’s Student Loan Debt: Implications on Financial and Emotional Wellness, there is a wholesale lack of understanding of college loan debt among students and graduates: Many student borrowers—53 percent—didn’t know their future monthly repayment amounts. Most—74 percent—were unsure of how long they would be making payments, and 25 percent had no idea whether they had private or government loans.
Those who are outraged by the idea of student debt forgiveness might take some initiative here to help solve the problem. It will take all of us thinking and contributing to the dialogue in order to best serve the future needs of our nation.
Yet again, or should I say, still, we the people are engaged in a religious war. One could argue that religious wars never really stop. Sometimes they go underground to simmer while parents exhort their children in the evils of their neighbors’ ways. But other times, like now, religionists strong arm their beliefs and opinions into public policy.
And that, my friends, is when the bloodshed inevitably begins. It was bad enough that the religious beliefs of your neighbors caused them to say insulting things about you, to sneer or, predictably, pray for your lost soul. Let their prayers rise to the heavens, calling upon their god to save them from the sins of their irreverent brethren.
How many gods are there? Over 5,000? 330 million? But of course only your god is real.
All of them exist in the sky, came to earth to kick-start humanity, taught us important skills, and told us how to honor Him. Well, Her in some cases. Those pesky extraterrestrials with their genetic manipulations, coming here to help us and leaving us to fail.
One source provides this following summary:
Christians believe in one God, saints, and millions of angels. Muslims believe in one god called Allah. Judaism is also monotheistic.
Hinduism: I don’t know much about Hinduism but some Hindus I’ve met say there are millions of gods. Buddhists don’t really believe in a “god” in the classical sense
Jains and Shinto: animistic, believe in souls of non- living and animate things. Jains believe even insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria possess spirits. Shinto believe in 8 million “kami” inhabiting rocks, trees, rivers, etc.
Not sure about Zoroastrianism. Baha’i’ appears to believe in one god. Native religions are often polytheistic.
But of course that’s a drop in the proverbial bucket.
Even more fascinating is the idea, growing in acceptance, that the gods are nothing more or less than highly advanced being from other worlds. Archaeological evidence coupled with the mythologies of most religions provide excellent evidence for this theory. After all, they come from the sky and probably despair of our continuous reversion to animal behavior, from which they crafted us. Haven’t they gone to a lot of effort to instruct us?
But back to the more fantastical concept of magical beings.
Thanks to our mortal fear of things we don’t understand, we humans find ourselves subservient to one god or another, or fifty, in order to cope with our lives. We pray, fervently, when that wall of muddy water rises to our front porch, when our child burns up with fever, when the person we love dies, that our god will hear our prayer and save us. Never mind that the crisis at hand could have been prevented if a god was truly paying attention.
We join with others to pool our resources to build a church or temple so we can pray with others, hoping our joined voices somehow better penetrate the vast distance between our physical existence and the domain of our god(s). We pool even more resources in order to send our emissaries to other places to spread the good word about our god (who is of course superior to any gods those places might already know) in order to gain god’s favor.
My god is better than your god.
Only believers in my god will enter the kingdom of heaven.
The kingdom of heaven—somewhere in the sky, the kingdom exists with its pearly gates and troops of glittering asexual angels. For Christians, Heaven is where Jesus Christ sits on the right hand of God while the Holy Spirit hovers effervescently around them. There is where you can exist in bliss for eternity if only you follow the rules set down by God. I won’t even try to go into the discrepancies and horrors enshrined within the pages of that many-times-edited document called the Bible, manipulated now for over 1700 years to fit the political whims of one ruler or another, ad infinitum.
Yes, as astute power brokers have long understood, religion is the key to controlling the masses. Through fear. Fear of your neighbor. Fear of disease. Fear of the great unknown, Nature in all her many ways of killing you or your children—flood, fire, earthquake, volcano, lightning, insects that consume your crops, wild animals that want you for dinner, accidents that leave you crippled. There is no end to the great unknowns. No end of things to fear.
Fear of GOD HIMSELF, a judgmental angry god who doles out death and destruction, an eternity in pain and suffering if you don’t follow his rules.
But your god is there, promising that if you only do x, y, and z, you will at least find surcease once you die. By then, of course, it’s too late to figure out it was all meant to keep you in thrall to the power structure with your tithes and contributions, your allegiance, your taking up arms to protect the power structure, your obeisance to the belief system.
Currently, the belief system for at least 74 million U. S. voters is an amalgamation of Christianity and pseudo-patriotic blather, worshippers of the earthly manifestation of their beliefs, Donald Trump. Incoherent as he may seem, he has managed to embody this confused belief system with his worldly embrace of excessive materialism, his adulterous affairs and marriages to women who can’t talk back, and his dishonorable thievery and abuse of countless workmen, friends, and professional associates.
The fear that drives Trump’s true believers is a new kind of fear. This fear is an addition to the traditional fear of Nature, disease, death, etc. The new fear is about incomprehensible technology and science that, on one hand, presents us with marvels like cell phones and the internet, and on the other hand, boggles our minds and bodies with demands we are mostly not yet evolved to endure.
It’s only been one hundred years since the majority of us lived our lives in the same patterns as we had for thousands of years. We tilled the land and cared for animals which in turn provided our food. We interacted with neighbors who were like us, who might have the skills to craft a plow or horseshoe, or who might teach our children to read. We scheduled our days by the season and the chores before us, washing our few clothes, grinding our grain, weaving our cloth. Those of us who lived in the cities might practice special trades, but the cities weren’t yet vast streams of headlights and towering structures of steel and glittering glass. Now suddenly we measure our time by the minute, steer our automobiles down the highways at 70 miles per hour, see on the television scenes of havoc and violence from places around the world.
We are not ready for this.
Mostly. The few among us who are ready, who embrace new ideas and new ways of living, are seen as the enemy. In fact, they are the future. They are evolving into the new humanity while the rest of us are doomed to die out.
The new people are different. They see the world as one community, the population as brothers. They accept the personal autonomy of women. They accept transgender and all forms of intimate interaction. They accept people of all colors. They accept that gods are not the answer. Rather, they embody the ultimate concept of any god’s primary teaching, that we must love each other and treat each other as we wish to be treated.
It is the Age of Aquarius.
In retreat from change, fearful people embrace what they know best, the violence enshrined in our past and its reactionary religions. Enemies, those who are Other, must be eradicated in order to protect self, family, and tradition. Random mass shootings are simply the enactment of this understanding.
This is a war that can only get worse as ‘leaders’ of the old beliefs increasingly harden their rhetoric in a craven attempt to bring glory and power to their misbegotten selves. Trump is only the figurehead for these rigid disciples. His inchoate mutterings satisfy the unspoken desire for an understandable past, when saddling a horse or following a plow were the only skills required. While these ‘conservatives’ take full advantage of the products of progress, everything from modern medicine to the use of secret internet groups where they can foment more hatred, they cannot grasp the tandem mindset, the mental/psychological trajectory of our evolution.
If only the ignorant could learn not to fear change. If only the dogmatic could understand the lessons of history. If only the evangelical Christians could see how their desire for a Christian nation mimics exactly the desires and objectives of the Taliban, the jihadists, and echoes the countless previous destructions of human life and civilizations in the name of their god.
“You cannot raise your children the way your parents raised you because your parents raised you for a world that no longer exists.” Mufti Menk
Without question, discovering the people from whom you descend is an exhilarating and fascinating endeavor. Idiosyncrasies of your known kinsmen—and yourself—suddenly make a lot of sense, not to mention that red hair or tall stature. It’s remarkably emotional to learn of an ancestor who fought to the death in a war or whose wife–your 3x great grandmother–died in house fire.
Several internet sources for genealogical information are free—simply search “Name” “date of birth” and if you know it, “location” and you’ll discover a group of results with respectable information. Sadly, you’ll also discover a trove of spammers and click bait.
But a word to the wise. The most extensive and useful source, Ancestry.com, also can be less than forthcoming. Here are a few helpful hints.
Using the “Search” “All Collections” option yields the best results especially for a beginner. Once you’ve entered the name and whatever other information you may have on hand, you’ll find results that don’t exactly match up with what you’re looking for.
Refinements could include selecting the gender for your subject, isolating the location to “exact” as shown by the arrow, and narrowing the birth year to within a year or two of the assumed date of birth. Yet in the case of Albert Taylor as shown in the image, the search yields nothing more than the 1860 census where, at age 17, he and his 19-year-old sister Jane reside in the household of Alcie Haton [Heaton] to whom his relationship is not known.
My interest in Albert Taylor is his military record with the 1st Arkansas Cavalry, U.S., where he served in Company L as a private. His death in the regiment records occurred February 22, 1863, as shown on one of the most extensive records of Civil War military personnel, the Edward G. Gerdes Civil War homepage. He is also listed in this regiment at the National Park Service website. But in Ancestry.com, his name does not appear in military records.
One of the most frustrating of Ancestry.com problems is the tendency of many family historians to simply duplicate what someone else has posted to that lineage history without confirming any of the information. In an ideal situation, a search of Family Trees produces a lot of histories. For example, my search for information about Van Buren Covington, who lost his life in 1864 while serving in Co. A, 1st AR Cavalry, led to an Ancestry.com Family Tree record showing only one result, as seen below. The only option from here is to click on the name of his fourteen-year-old bride, which yields her family background, locations of family members, and other possibly useful leads.
But in many cases, Family Tree results show one or two trees with two or three ‘records’ or ‘sources’ and then the rest of the trees, of which there may be dozens, have no records and only one source, if any. Inevitably, these trees perpetuate inaccurate information and are simply not to be trusted. This problem grows exponentially as you track family trees back through generations because researching materials established before modern record keeping involves tedious attention to details often preserved in an arcane manner. So don’t just take the first couple of family trees as gospel; make a thorough investigation of those with the most sources and records, and compare the information before accepting it.
Note: If your ancestry leads you to records in another country, you’ll have to pay Ancestry.com an additional subscription fee in order to access those records.
Ancestry.com is very much a user-created database assisted by an extensive organizational effort on the part of the company to provide as many institutional records as possible. But nothing is perfect. Subscribe if you want to search your genealogy, enjoy the nuggets of pure gold that you find, but always remain aware that in order to glean the greatest accuracy, you must not only limit your family tree searches to those with multiple records and sources, but also compare them to information found on other internet sites.
For Van Buren Covington, an internet search beyond Ancestry.com resulted in several discoveries. Geni.com shows his full name was Martin Van Buren Covington, born in 1839, not 1837. It also shows family members. But beware—Geni.com is one of those sites that requires membership before giving out any further info. You may find useful free resources at genealogy.com and many more. Bottom line? HAVE FUN!
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, an exodus from the cities brought hundreds of new settlers to the Arkansas Ozarks. Their personal stories are testaments to an awakening shared by many of the Baby Boom generation, personal and communal. This interview is one of 32 personal stories gathered in 1999-2000, and published in Aquarian Revolution: Back to the Land.
I didn’t like the way I was treated as a kid. I was beaten regularly. I don’t think I’ve cried since I was seven years old, because if I cried, they would beat me with a leather strap until I stopped crying. I had a bleeding ulcer from age twelve until it healed up after I left home right before my eighteenth birthday. I had a shrink and a probation officer trying to get me out of my house legally.
I ran away at thirteen and was involved with a stolen car. I remember when we ditched the car, this other kid I was with, he was fifteen, big kid. We were on our way to pick up some fake plates and police chased us because they recognized him so we dumped the car. We jumped out of the car doing about 45 mph, leaving my guitar case and suitcase with birth certificate, everything telling them who I was, and we ran, picked up a third guy, jumped on a bus to Baltimore, blew all the money we had, started hitchhiking. We were on our way to California. The police picked us up at two a.m. on the highway. I never gave them my name. I was planning on breaking out of jail. I can remember when I was riding that bus, I was thinking about my parents and how much I loved them, but I just couldn’t stand to live with them.
That was about the time I started getting high. A lot of things were about to break then, one way or another. It was either going to come out of me in violence, or… I think I found a channel to do it naturally and just chill out. Just reach in.
They made me see a shrink when I was thirteen because of the stolen car. He said I was afraid to express myself with my dad and that’s why, if anybody crossed me, I’d be right on them. After thirteen, I was getting into a lot of trouble. I was a practical joker who did things I probably shouldn’t have been doing, but I did it with a smile. I had my destructive period. One night three of us smashed a car that was parked alongside the road. We used sticks and rocks and beat it in. Totaled it. Those were heavy years.
I think it was being able to smoke that pulled me out of it. My friends were mostly tough guys, had attitudes. By the time I was seventeen, I had started to drift off with the ones who didn’t. I remember violence on TV, violence was everywhere. It was either protests or Vietnam. At sixteen, if anyone defied me, I would be down their throat in a second. One time a teacher put me in the front seat of the class, wouldn’t let me sleep. I was, man, you won’t let me sleep, what kind of a deal is this? I might have been getting a D at that point, but I didn’t care about that class. He put me in the front seat, banged my shoulder or something, made me wake up and started talking to me, I told him to leave me alone and he did something else to irritate me, and I jumped out of my seat, grabbed him by the lapels, dragged him across his desk, and smashed him into the blackboard in front of the whole class, and said “Leave me the fuck alone.” So of course they threw me out of school instantly.
That was my attitude with anybody. People would come to me from the grade ahead, bigger kids than me, and say hey, this guy’s doing this and that, and I’d go confront him. And I wouldn’t just confront him and intimidate him with anger, I’d put it into words. I’d say something to them that they couldn’t argue with. I didn’t want to argue with anybody, but if you’re going to argue with me, stand back or get out of the way, save yourself. My dad didn’t think I was a man because I wouldn’t be angry with him and fight back. Yet I’d go out and fight and do all this.
Coming out of that, I started being friends with all the teachers I had given trouble. My shrink might have been talking with my parents then. I had two shrinks, one my mother took me to and one that came to my school once a month. I had a probation officer, too. First time I went to the shrink, I sat to talk to him, and he said, ok. Then I went out and he talked to my mom. I come back in and sit down and he looked at me and said, K–, I cannot talk to your mom.
She was so headstrong. You did as she said or whack, or twist your ear. Most of my physical abuse was from my mom. It reached a point with my mom that I was more verbal. By the time I was ten or so, my mom didn’t scare me.
I ended up getting married my senior year. I was moving out. I’d run away another time, it was the third time. It wasn’t like running away. I was walking back and forth with my clothes, patting my mom on the back, saying it’s ok Mrs. C–, it’s ok. I was outta there. My wife’s parents took me in. The probation people were trying to get me out of my house before I was eighteen, if I could find somebody. They knew that anything was better than where I was. As hard as I might have been trying, chilling out, it was hard pretty much to the end.
Finally, I argued back with my dad and that was it. I made a quick exit because he just wanted to knock my block off. I think that changed him. He kind of stopped by the time I was seventeen, eighteen, when I was working for his business doing electrical. …
Now retired from a successful self-employed career, the subject of this interview moved to Hawaii where he has opened a meditation retreat. Read the rest of his compelling story, available for only $4.99 (ebook) or $11.32 (paperback), at Amazon
Abortion has been, and continues to be, a vital weapon in the Republican toolbox, a means to gain control over a multitude of less savory objectives. With this hot button, they have been able to whip up energy within their ranks. Over the last fifty years, a growing mob of zealots have taken to the streets and the halls of government with placards showing the pitiful fetus so wronged by evil women and their fiendish abortion doctors.
The truth is that the flap over abortion was never as much about the ‘unborn baby’ as it was about political capital. Powerbrokers saw right away that this issue aroused emotion like nothing else. Yet what the Republican Party stood for, then as now, also enshrined racial prejudice, but it had become impossible to openly advocate for white supremacy.
The mass migration of voters from Democratic ranks to the shelter of the Republican Party began not with Roe v Wade, but with the 1952 Brown vs Board of Education decision and followed more decisively with the Kennedy-Johnson push for civil rights. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbade discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race in hiring, promoting, and firing. The Act prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and federally funded programs. It also strengthened the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools.
After the 1964 Civil Rights Act, many white, conservative Southern Democrats became Republicans. The South had been mostly Democratic before 1964; it was mostly Republican after (although on the local level continued to be heavily Democratic for decades). Many “values voters” became Republicans.
The 1973 Roe v Wade decision legalizing abortion did not have nearly the same impact as the Civil Rights Act as far as political response. For a time, other issues sidetracked voter attention, such as the winding down of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal that shoved Nixon out of office. The Arab oil embargo also diverted public interest with skyrocketing gasoline prices. In reality, the behind-the-scene Republican strategists were slow in coming around to a full understanding of how to use the abortion issue to represent the real interests of conservatives.
Early in Reagan’s presidency, developing tactics on the abortion issue spread through the nation in the hands of then-fledgling evangelical groups wielding signage of dismembered fetuses (remarkably mature for the gestation dates named) and demonstrations by women crying for the lost babies or, more heart-rendering, testimonials by women who had obtained abortions and later regretted it. (This vanishingly small group remains an active feature of anti-choice campaigns. One could sum up their position as yet another demonstration of ignorance.)
At first, Democrats yielded ground on the matter, not firmly convinced enough about women’s right to bodily autonomy to take a firm stand. Lamentably lacking in early opposition to the anti-abortion crowd were strategies to fight back with their own weaponry, for example, citing Biblical scriptures showing that personhood began at birth.
After God formed man in Genesis 2:7, He “breathed into his nostrils the breath of life and it was then that the man became a living being”. Although the man was fully formed by God in all respects, he was not a living being until after taking his first breath.
Democrats have finally taken a stronger stance on the topic, linking the party to “their support of ‘human rights’ and of groups whose rights have been long suppressed – African Americans and other minority groups, women seeking to vote and enjoy full property rights, LGBTQ people and immigrants.”
To Republicans, the abortion issue is a coded message about the party’s stance on longstanding prejudices, not only uppity women but also African Americans and other minorities, LBGTQ people, and non-white immigrants. Without having to advertise racism or other prejudices, Republican strategists can push voters to champion the rights of the fetus while avoiding the party’s full agenda.
It is not the facts of an issue which drive evangelical voters. As a general rule, evangelicals don’t embrace facts. Their hands are full of Bibles, which they don’t precisely understand, but they do hear what preachers tell them. What the preachers tell them is intended not to elucidate the facts but rather to stoke FEAR of God’s wrath. And, in these narrow hallways of evangelical mentality, God will punish them if they don’t stop women from killing fetuses.
It’s not that evangelist preachers are pursuing a goal they understand in terms of social policy. Their vehement sermons about abortion and their endorsement of specific political candidates derive from their urgent personal desire to make money off of Jesus. Evangelicals are an easy mark. See, for example, the fundraising headline at Focus on the Family’s website: “SAVE 2X THE BABIES FROM ABORTION! Double Your Gift to Save Lives!”
The more insidious objective of the Republican agenda is to continue shifting power to corporations and the super wealthy while the frontmen lure evangelical voters with the promise of a Christian nation. Sadly, evangelicals lack any understanding of the threat posed in religion as government, a condition that increases exponentially as more private religious schools and homeschooling take the place of public education.
Remedies for the current crisis would include regulations that deny diplomas to any student, homeschooled or otherwise, who cannot pass examinations proving understanding of American history and government, among other subjects required of public school students. If U. S. citizens cannot begin adulthood on the same page, we have no hope of continuing as a nation.
One thing such an education would ensure is the awareness that the Republican/evangelical drive toward a Christian nation is a form of sedition, “an overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward rebellion against the established order. Sedition often includes subversion of a constitution and incitement of discontent toward, or insurrection against, established authority.”
Equally tragic is while Republican power brokers chortle over wins for the One Percent, they have failed to recognize the puppet master profiting from their maneuvers: Putin.
Trump’s victory lap over the demise of Roe v Wade unveils one of the subtle purposes of Vladimir Putin’s support. The Russian ploy to undermine U.S. society gained a witless ally in Trump, who pulled his best con job in his election to the presidency, aided and abetted by the machinations of Russian interference.
What has now been made clear is that Russian trolls and automated bots not only promoted explicitly pro-Donald Trump messaging, but also used social media to sow social divisions in America by stoking disagreement and division around a plethora of controversial topics such as immigration and Islamophobia.
The overarching goal for Russia, during the election and now, analysts say, is to expand and exploit divisions, attacking the American social fabric where it is most vulnerable, along lines of race, gender, class and creed.
“The broader Russian strategy is pretty clearly about destabilizing the country by focusing on and amplifying existing divisions, rather than supporting any one political party,” said Jonathon Morgan, a former state department adviser on digital responses to terrorism whose company, New Knowledge, analyzes the manipulation of public discourse.
Russia’s desired outcome in the months before Donald Trump’s election in 2016 was not simply to see him elected. It aimed, instead, to more broadly “undermine the US-led liberal democratic order” (in the words of a January 2017 intelligence assessment), an effort that Russia believed would be aided far more by Trump’s election than Hillary Clinton’s. This overlapped with its desire to “provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States” (in the words of special counsel Robert S. Mueller III), leading it to weigh in not only on electoral politics but cultural fights — investing in amplifying and exacerbating contentious social debates.
 Also Job 33:4: “The spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.”
Ezekiel 37:5, 6: “Thus says the Lord God to these bones: Behold, I will cause breath to enter you, and you shall live. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will cause flesh to come upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live; and you shall know that I am the Lord.”
Exodus 21:22: If a man causes a woman to have a miscarriage, he shall be fined; however, if the woman dies then he will be put to death. It should be apparent from this that the aborted fetus is not considered a living human being since the resulting punishment for the abortion is nothing more than a fine; it is not classified by the bible as a capital offense.
Records of John Randolph’s birth name a birth year of 1853, although various other records show conflicting dates. A church record states that he was born December 24, 1853, in Independence County, Arkansas. In 1873 at age 19, he married Sarah “Sally” Elizabeth Prince at Sulphur Rock, Independence County, Arkansas. She was his second cousin once removed.
Miss Prince was born September 1849 in Tennessee, daughter of William Prince and Martha Lamberson. This Lamberson is related to John’s mother’s family: Melinda was her first cousin once removed. William J. Prince was born 1813 in Georgia, and died during the Civil War in Independence County, Arkansas, as did his wife Martha Lamberson Prince, born 1825 in North Carolina. Sarah Sally’s siblings were William H., b 1842 TN (CSA AR 8th Inf. Co. E, enrolled August 6, 1862 at Sulphur Rock, AR, between Newark and Batesville); Mary A., born 1847 TN (married James Scott); Virginia b 1850 MS; James Ferdinand b 1852 AR; Martha Jane b 1857 AR (married George Hill 1872; David Bruton 1879); John T. b 1858 AR; Tennessee “Babe” b 1860 (raised by Mary, married Riley Whaley).
Birth records for the couple’s sixth child, Benjamin, dated 1888, states that John age 38 was a farmer and preacher, born at Newark Arkansas, and that Sarah age 40 was born in Mississippi.
John Randolph Campbell and his new wife Sally produced the following children:
i. Emma Campbell b. 1874, Newton Co., AR, d. 1888 of rheumatic fever at age fourteen
ii. Mary Molly Campbell b 1876, m. Frank Pratt(s). Children were Mabel m. Fred Albert; Lizzie m. John Hilburn; Beulah; Pierce; Lennox; Urcil “Huck”; Margie; Nettie (died).
iii. John William Campbell, b 1878, m. Mary Jane Ellis. John William is the great-great grandfather of my three Campbell children.
iv. Jack O’Neil, b. Dec 25, 1882 at Newark, Indep. Co, AR, d. Apr 14, 1960, Newport, married July 19, 1903 to Emma Bell Hicks and produced Lennie Mae, Bertha, Commie O’Neal, Rutha Lee, and Opal Christine. Jack then married Donnie Inness and produced another eight children: Edna Irene, Burl Nathaniel, Aubrey Evereett, Almeta Beatrice, Leeaun Utah, J. C., Alvin Newton, and Thelma Joyce.
v. James Campbell b 1880, m. Mary Willis. Children were Dallas, Nanny, and another daughter.
vi. Clu Campbell, died at age 9 – not found in family birth records
vii. Benjamin Harvey Campbell, b June 14, 1888, Pleasant Plains, Indep. Co AR, d. Nov 19, 1966, Newport, Jackson Co, AR. married Willie Hicks, married Ocra Ellen Tibbs, and their children were Eva Jewell and Clemins Alvin. He then married Helen Carmen “Nell” Yancy, and produced Vesta Lola, Virginia Vivian, Mather Carnell, Veda Lee, Milous Harvey, and Benjamin Morris.
The 1880 Newton County Arkansas census for Jackson Township lists John Campbell age 26 with wife Sarah age 25, with children Emma age 6, Mary age 4, John age 2, and James six months. John’s occupation was farming.
The 1900 census for Fairview Township, Newton County (?) lists John R. Campbell age 46 as a mail carrier, land owner with a mortgage, married 27 years to Sarah, age 50, with seven children of which five were living. Jackson, age 17, was a hack driver, and Harvey age 13 was a farm laborer. They housed a lodger named William Hicks. The 1920 census for Jackson County Arkansas, Richwoods Township, finds John R. Campbell age 67 and Sarah A. age 72 living in a rented home, with his occupation described as clergyman and evangelist. The 1930 census for Amagon (Richwoods Twp) lists John R. age 80 and Sarah age 84 living in a rented home without occupation.
John Randolph was about five-nine at 185 pounds, although in older age he became “heavy set.” He worked as an itinerant preacher, following the Church of Christ denomination. “On September 29, 1895, John R. Campbell was authorized to work as an evangelist by the “Disciples of Christ, worshiping at Surrounded Hill Arkansas.” In 1889, he was ordained as a preacher by E. M Kilpatrick, and J. L. Kitridge, Clerk for Tex-Ark & Indian Territory: Credentials, page 32.
According to one descendant, “John Randolph used to preach near Bradford [Arkansas] at least once a month; Aunt Nell [wife of Benjamin Harvey] remembers hearing him preach in 1914 near Swifton … said his name was Campbell and he was a Campbellite preacher. In 1917 he lived in the Pennington community and preached at different places. He received very little money as payment, mostly fresh vegetables, canned food, and some meats. Aunt Nell said she overheard some older women talking about the time he received a large handkerchief and two week’s board for holding a meeting. He preached some at Amagon and went to church barefoot … services were held in the schoolhouse.”
He also rented farms to grow cotton and he traded horses and any other item of value. When his third child John William and family settled in Fayetteville after 1918, John Randolph and Sarah joined them, living first at John William’s store at the corner of Rock and Mill, then on Frisco Street and finally on the south side of Spring Street in the four hundred block before moving back to east Arkansas. His grandson John Carl later recollected that he drove an old Overland Blue Bird.
One descendant stated that “John R. Campbell was a preacher. He was really a corker. Pulled some pretty good stunts. Think he drank a lot.” It was said by his grandson Zack that there were only two places that John Randolph would drink home brew, and that was “on this side of the Bible and on the other side.” His wife Sally dipped snuff, and sometimes smoked a cob pipe. Sally’s daughter-in-law (Mary Jane Ellis) stated that the Prince women were known to have “woods colts,” a euphemism for illegitimate children. In old age, Sally suffered a “dowager’s hump,” now known as osteoporosis. Sally and John Randolph both died in the Newport Arkansas area.
Mary Molly Campbell
Little is known about William and Melinda Campbell’s second child, Mary Molly. She is not listed in the 1860 census of Howell County Missouri. Later records show her spouse as John Willis Payne. Willis was born in 1854 in Kentucky, with both parents also born in Kentucky.
Willis and Mary Payne are found in the 1880 Newton County, Arkansas census, Jackson Township, at ages 25 and 26, respectively, evidence she was born in 1855 two years after John Randolph. Also in the household is her younger brother James, listed a ‘boarder.’
In a letter dated 1971 from Elizabeth Campbell Farmer, daughter of James “Jim” William Campbell, Elizabeth states: “Mary Payne is my papa’s (Jim Campbell) only sister. We called her Aunt Molly and she was married to Willis Payne.”
After 1880, Willis and Mary vanish from public records.
James William Campbell
At age 24, James married Nancy Jane Bell (age 19), daughter of William Levi and Nancy Busby Bell, September 18, 1882, in Newton County, Arkansas. This was two years after he was named as ‘boarder’ in the household of his sister Mary and brother-in-law Willis Payne. James and Nancy moved to Harrison (Boone County) Arkansas but in 1886 they moved back to Newton County where they settled in the Mt. Judea area (pronounced “Judy” by locals). There James dug wells and cisterns and built chimneys, as well as farming his land with cotton, corn, and small grains. He was a “great hand with a scythe and cradle and would get $1.00 per day for cutting wheat, a good wage for that time and more than most men were paid.” His son, Wesley A. Monroe, said they had “biscuits one to three times each day during the wheat harvest then cornbread three times a day for the rest of the year.”
He was elected Justice of the Peace in 1892 and remained in office for years. About the same time the family moved into a “box” house on land they homesteaded, a cause for celebration since most families lived in rough log cabins. In his capacity as JP, he married many couples and was said to shed tears during the ceremonies. He only went to school two days in his life, according to his descendants, but was a self-educated man. He taught school two summers – “Script” or conscript school. Each family paid one dollar for each child attending.
In the fall of the year, James would go away to pick cotton (probably in the river bottoms) and would take his wife’s handicapped half-sister Eliza Lawson as well as his older children. His wife Nancy Jane stayed home to care for the younger children and the homestead. It is said that James and Eliza lived as husband and wife during the cotton-picking trips. Nancy spun thread and wove most the cloth used for their clothes, including coats. The pants and coats were made of half wool and half cotton, called “linsey-woolsey.”
James also served in some capacity with the Spear Mining Company for their lead and zinc mine near Pendle. He was a school trustee for the board of education and helped to hire teachers. He was a “jack of all trades,” doctoring animals and people by setting broken limbs on splits that he whittled. He farmed and grew everything his family ate, including the livestock.
The eleven children of James and Nancy, as well as his child by Eliza Lawson and children by Nancy Walls, his third wife, are not listed for sake of privacy.
Sarah E. Campbell
The 1860 census, taken July 19, gives Sarah’s age as one month. Thereafter, no record of her is found. Assumed she died in infancy.
Tracking William Campbell b. 1818-1820 in Tennessee
Most Ancestry.com family trees for William Campbell give his middle name as “Peter.” This is almost certainly an error. The only evidence that “Peter” was his middle name is the death certificate of his son John Randolph. On that certificate, which was informed by John’s 80-year-old wife Sally, she stated William’s name was Peter. The problem is that 1) William’s wife’s father’s name was Peter Lamberson, and this suggests Sally was just confused at that moment, and 2) there is not one other document that shows “Peter” as his middle name. Not census records (1840, 1850), not his military records, not his divorce records or marriage record. Therefore I think we should remove Peter from the record. The only other name found is in the letter from Abel Lamberson calling him “Uncle Bill.”
His date/place of birth:
Both census records are clear that he was born in Tennessee. In 1850, he said he was 32 (born 1818). In 1860, he said he was 40 (born 1820).
His first marriage:
One record finds a marriage record of William Campbell to Sarah Graves on April 21, 1842 by J. C. Petree, J.P. in Campbell Co., TN. This is the same “Sarah” he divorced three years later, as shown in the divorce record from Independence Co., AR Chancery Court Record A, pgs 100 and 102. The record makes clear that William was represented by his solicitor and did not show up in person, while Sarah was present “in her own proper person” and “admits the charges in said bill.” Apparently William and Sarah traveled from TN to AR together and came to Independence Co before February 1845. Divorces were extremely rare in those times, filed by only the husband in cases of adultery. The information contained here suggests he originated in Campbell County, TN.
This marriage record links to a death certificate of a male named Manuel Hickey Campbell born January 31, 1843 at Knox Co., TN, as the son of Sarah Graves and William Campbell. Tennessee State Library and Archives; Nashville, Tennessee; Tennessee Death Records, 1908-1958; Roll Number: 74
The 1850 census for Campbell Co., TN finds Sarah Graves age 27 living in the household of Ashley and Elizabeth Miller with their four children not including Sarah’s son Manuel. Elizabeth age 25 was the sister of Sarah. Year: 1850; Census Place: Subdivision 17, Campbell, Tennessee; Roll: 872; Page: 309b This brings up the possibility that upon the divorce, William took Manuel into his household for some unknown period of time. This would be rare for a single man.
1860 census for Glenwood, Mills, IA finds Sarah Campbell age 31, b TN with personal estate of $200 as head of household with Manuel Campbell age 16 and William Campbell age 8. In this record, Sarah states no livelihood and cannot read or write. This record assigns a birth year for William at 1852. Year: 1860; Census Place: Glenwood, Mills, Iowa; Roll: M653_336; Page: 82; Family History Library Film: 803336
Military records for Manuel H. Campbell show he filed for a disability in 1906, and that he served in the Louisiana 4th Infantry Regiment, Company A, spouse Martha E. Campbell. The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; NAI Title: U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934; NAI Number: T288; Record Group Title: Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs, 1773-2007; Record Group Number: 15; Series Title: U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934; Series Number: T288; Roll: 70
The 4th Louisiana Infantry organized at New Orleans, Louisiana in April, 1861. The 4th was included in the surrender on May 4, 1865.Additional military records show he entered the military on 20 Oct 1861. Veterans Administration Master Index, 1917-1940
1870 census found for Emmanuel Campbell, age 27, born TN, living at Haynie Post office, Lyons, Mills Co., IA where he works at farm labor. He has married to Mary Campbell and cannot read or write.
Marriage records for M H Campbell shows marriage to Martha Leeky on Nov 8, 1886, at Roane Co., TN.
The 1900 census for William Campbell is taken at Rock Bluff, Cass Co., NE. He’s marked as single age 44, born Feb 1856. Sarah “Burchard” resides with him, age 75, born Dec 1824, widowed, b. TN, parents b TN. Year: 1900; Census Place: Rock Bluffs, Cass, Nebraska; Page: 8; Enumeration District: 0016; FHL microfilm: 1240919
The 1910 census finds Sarah B. Campbell as head of household, age 86 living with William Campbell age 61, born 1849, at Rock Bluff, Cass Co Nebraska. Sarah is still illiterate. Year: 1910; Census Place: Rock Bluff, Cass, Nebraska; Roll: T624_840; Page: 6B; Enumeration District: 0016; FHL microfilm: 1374853
1920 census at Rock Bluff finds William alone, age 68, same data. Next door to two Campbell families apparently not related.
Clearly William (the son) loses track of his age/birth year. The 1900 census that gives Feb 1856 as his birthdate conflicts with the 1860 census when his mother states he was eight years old, i.e. born in 1852. Either way, either he is not the son of William (the older) or William was slipping out on Melinda (not likely).
Manuel Campbell’s Find a Grave records shows a birth day of Jan 31, 1843, at Knoxville, TN. His wife was named Martha Elizabeth and they had 13 children with Campbell sons named Clyde J., William Franklin, Manuel Howard, and James Lafayette. He died Mar 25, 1917 at Johnson City, Wash. Co., TN and is buried at Monte Vista Memorial Park. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/74447834/manuel-hickey-campbell
Were Manuel and William actually the children of our William? Did Sarah name her second son William out of spite, or because he was actually William’s son? If so, that means he slipped around on Melinda and if so, why divorce Sarah in the first place? If the divorce was over infidelity, then can we assume that William was William Sr.’s son in name only?
More searching for info on Sarah led to a probate record for William Campbell in Tipton Co, TN, in the December 1835 term. His brother-in-law was Carter Allen, leading to the assumption that his unnamed wife’s maiden name was Allen. His five children included William Campbell. Searches for further info go nowhere.
William’s second marriage:
On April 10, 1851, William age 32 married Lina Lamberson age 17, at Independence County, AR Arkansas, U.S., County Marriages Index, 1837-1957
Four children with his second wife Melinda Lamberson as follows:
William and Melinda’s children were John Randolph b. Dec 12, 1853 Howell Co. d. July 28, 1930, Richwoods Twp, Jackson Co., AR; Mary Molly Campbell, b 1855, Howell Co., married Willis Payne; James William Campbell b Jan 1858, Howell Co., d Mar 3, 1928, Woodruff Co., AR, married Nancy Jane Bell September 24, 1882 Newton Co AR, then her half-sister Liza Lawson, then married Nancy Kathryn Walls; Sarah E. Campbell, b June 1860.
The Original Story
A story passed down through William’s great grandson John Carl Campbell is that four Campbell brothers stowed away on a ship leaving Liverpool circa 1760 for passage to the American colonies. Upon landing at the Eastern seaboard, the brothers separated and lost contact with each other. One of the brothers, John Campbell, or his son, made his way to Tennessee or eastern Arkansas by the early 1800s.
As stated earlier and by our relative David Dale Combs, another family historian, “After the war in Scotland of the 1700s, Scots came to America by the thousands. Among them were hundreds of Campbell families, and many of them had numerous children. To make matters worse, some of the most common given names in these Campbell families were William, John, and James. …The search for the parents of our William Campbell is equivalent to looking for the proverbial needle in the haystack.”
In researching this history, we have found no proof of the Atlantic crossing story. Known historical facts, however, support Dale’s statement.
William’s First Marriage
William’s name appears in public records in Independence County, Arkansas in 1845 when filed for a divorce from his wife Sarah.
A marriage record of William Campbell to Sarah Graves is found in Campbell County, Tennessee, stating that on April 21, 1842 by J. C. Petree, J.P. joined the couple in matrimony. He would have been 22-24 years old at this time, and Sarah 19.
On Thursday, February 6, 1845: PETITION FOR DIVORCE:
William Campbell, complainant vs Sarah Campbell, defendant
William Campbell vs Sarah Campbell: BILL FOR DIVORCE
As now on this day comes the said complainant by his solicitor, and also comes the said defendant in her own proper person, and waives all process, and the service thereof, and files her answer to the complainant’s bill of complaint whereby she admits the charges in said bill. And it appearing to the satisfaction of the court here that the bond of matrimony here-to-fore entered into and none existing, between the said William Campbell and Sarah Campbell be and the same are hereby dissolved, set aside and held for naught, and the said parties and each of them, are hereby restored to all the rights, privileges and immunities of single and unmarried persons.
And it is further ordered and decreed by the court that the said complainant pay all the costs of this suit. Therefore, it is considered by the court that the said defendant do have and recover of and from said plaintiff all the costs in and about this suit expended.
The record makes clear that William was represented by his solicitor and did not show up in person, while Sarah was present “in her own proper person” and “admits the charges in said bill.” Apparently William and Sarah traveled from TN to AR together and came to Independence Co before February 1845. Divorces were extremely rare in those times, generally filed by only the husband in cases of adultery. The information contained here suggests he originated in Campbell County, TN. No further evidence of his place of origins has been found.
This marriage record linked to a death certificate of a male named Manuel Hickey Campbell born January 31, 1843 at Knox Co., TN, as the son of Sarah Graves and William Campbell.
The 1850 census for Campbell Co., TN finds Sarah Graves age 27 living in the household of Ashley and Elizabeth Miller with their four children not including Sarah’s son Manuel. Elizabeth age 25 was the sister of Sarah. This brings up the possibility that upon the divorce, William took Manuel into his household for some unknown period of time. This would be rare for a single man.
1860 census for Glenwood, Mills, IA finds Sarah Campbell age 31, b TN with personal estate of $200 as head of household with Manuel Campbell age 16 and William Campbell age 8. In this record, Sarah states no livelihood and cannot read or write. This record assigns a birth year for William at 1852.
Military records for Manuel H. Campbell show he filed for a disability in 1906, and that he served in the Louisiana 4th Infantry Regiment, Company A, Confederate States of America. The 4th Louisiana Infantry organized at New Orleans, Louisiana in April, 1861. The 4th was included in the surrender on May 4, 1865.Additional military records show he entered the military on 20 Oct 1861.
1870 census found for Emmanuel Campbell, age 27, born TN, living at Haynie Post office, Lyons, Mills Co., IA where he works at farm labor. He has married to Mary Campbell and cannot read or write.
Marriage records for M H Campbell shows marriage to Martha Leeky on Nov 8, 1886, at Roane Co., TN.
The 1900 census for William Campbell is taken at Rock Bluff, Cass Co., NE. He’s marked as single age 44, born Feb 1856. Sarah “Burchard” resides with him, age 75, born Dec 1824, widowed, b. TN, parents b TN.
The 1910 census finds Sarah B. Campbell as head of household, age 86 living with William Campbell age 61, born 1849, at Rock Bluff, Cass Co Nebraska. Sarah is still illiterate.
1920 census at Rock Bluff finds William alone, age 68, same data. Next door to two Campbell families apparently not related. Sarah’s death records have not been found. Clearly William (the son) loses track of his age/birth year. The 1900 census that gives Feb 1856 as his birthdate conflicts with the 1860 census when his mother states he was eight years old, i.e. born in 1852. Either way, either he is not the son of William (the older) or William was slipping out on Melinda (not likely).
Manuel’s Find a Grave records shows a birth day of Jan 31, 1843, at Knoxville, TN. His wife was named Martha Elizabeth and they had 13 children with Campbell sons named Clyde J., William Franklin, Manuel Howard, and James Lafayette. He died Mar 25, 1917 at Johnson City, Wash. Co., TN and is buried at Monte Vista Memorial Park.
Were Manuel and William actually the children of our William? Did Sarah name her second son William out of spite, or because he was actually William’s son? If so, that means he slipped around on his new bride Melinda.
Deed records for Independence County show a December 22, 1848 deed (Book G-625) by John L. Waggoner conveying title to William Campbell, both of the county, for the amount of $100 for land described as SE quarter of SW quarter Section 13, and NE quarter of NW quarter Section 24, both Township 12, Range 6 West. Witnessed by Thomas S. Coiles (?) and E. Morgan.
On November 30, 1849, Independence County Deed Book G-624 shows the transfer of land from John Agnew to William Campbell for $55, described as NW quarter of the NE quarter of Sect 24, Township 24, 12 N of Range 6 W, containing 40 acres. Wit. Wm. S. McGuire, Ringgold.
William’s Second Wife
William’s name appeared in the 1850 Arkansas census for Independence County, where he gave his age as 32, residing in Green Briar Township, working as a stone mason, and having real estate assets of $360. The following spring, on April 10, 1851, William married Melinda “Lennie, Lina” Lamberson at her father’s home in Independence County in services performed by Henry Powell, Minister of the Gospel, Methodist Episcopal Church, South. William was 32 and Lennie was 17.
Miss Lamberson was born February 13, 1832, in Gallatin County, Illinois. Her father, Peter Lamberson, was a farmer born 1799 in Pennsylvania. His wife Elizabeth (Knight), also born in 1799, was from North Carolina. According to the 1850 Arkansas census, their children besides Melinda were Leonard D. b. 1824, William Sira Norris “WSN” b. 1827, Catherine, Elizabeth b. 1831, and Eliza, age fourteen born Illinois. Living at an adjacent property was Peter and Elizabeth’s oldest child, Leonard Lamberson, age 26 and born in Tennessee, his wife Elizabeth age 22 born TN, and three children born in Arkansas: Nancy age four, James K. P. age three, and Thomas J., age one.
Unfortunately, in December 1851, William lost a suit filed against him by Thomas E. Hughs [Hughes] for a debt of $19.25. Some time passed, perhaps in negotiation, before the final outcome would be decided. The following is shown in the Independence County Court Record M-170:
On October 29, 1857, Sheriff George W. Daugherty deeded to James B. Kimbro certain lands belonging to William Campbell in satisfaction of a writ Fiera Facias in the name of Thomas E. Hughs presented to the sheriff July 29, 1857,
“that whereas the aforesaid Thomas B. Hughs on the 16th day of December AD 1851 did file in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of the County of Independence a certified copy of a certain judgement rendered by Fleming Pate, Esq, a justice of the peace in and for the township of Round Pond, in the said County of Independence whereby it appears that the said Justice of the Peace did on the 15th day of November 1851 render judgment in his favor against William Campbell for nineteen dollars and forty cents” with court costs of one dollar and eighty-five cents. Further, “an execution was issued thereon and the said execution has been returned that the defendant has no goods or chattels whereof to levy the same. And whereas the clerk of said circuit court did at the same time of filing such transcript as aforesaid enter such judgement in the docks of said circuit court for judgements and decrees in the manner and provided by law to the end that the same might have like effect and be carried into execution in the same manner as the judgements of said circuit court. You are therefore commanded that of the goods and chattels lands and tenements of the said William Campbell you cause to be made the debt damages and costs aforesaid together with the sum of – dollars and fifty cents additional cots for entering transcript and have the said debt damages and costs and additional costs before our said circuit court on the 7th day of September AD 1857 and then and there certify how you have executed this writ. And in obedience to the commands of said writ and in order that the same might be executed and satisfied, I did afterwards to wit: on the 30th day of July AD1857 in said county then and there levy upon and seize the following described property as the property of said William Campbell, to wit: The SE ¼ of the SW ¼ of Section 13 and the NE ¼ of the NW ¼ of Section 24 in Town 12 N, of Range 6 West containing in the aggregate 80 acres more or less.”
The record goes on to describe the sale of these lands at the courthouse door on Monday the 7th day of September 1857. The highest bidder was James B. Kimbro for $81.25 and the property was conveyed to Kimbro by the sheriff’s deed.
This was not the first loss of land for William in his hopeful new start in Arkansas. The forty acres purchased in 1849 was sold just four years later on October 4, 1853, to J. H. Ringgold, the same man who had served as witness to the original sale and perhaps a neighbor to William.
Ten years later, according to the 1860 Howell Co. Missouri census, William Campbell, his wife, and three children lived in Spring Creek Township, where he was a stone mason with $200 in assets. His wife Lennie was 28 at the time, John R. was three (this age must be an error because later records give an 1853 birthdate for John), James William was two, and Sarah E. was one month. Their second child, Mary Molly, born 1855, was probably next door at the home of her grandparents, Peter and Elizabeth Lamberson, aged sixty.
Efforts to determine when both families moved to Missouri have been fruitless. Howell County deed records went up in flames when the courthouse burned during the war, and nothing in the deed records of Independence County determine clearly when William moved away. It may be presumed that the 1853 sale of the forty acres was the point at which the family moved, and that the judgement rendered in 1851 against him lingered unattended to be finally decided in 1857 with William absent.
Determination of birthplaces for the three oldest children has been in question with many census records showing Arkansas as the place of birth. However, given that the 1860 census information was given by the parents rather than based on childhood memories, we accept the Howell County place of birth as the correct one. That would mean that William’s young wife was six months pregnant with their first child when they moved from Arkansas unless he had previously taken her to a new home in Missouri before returning to Arkansas to sell the land.
Howell County, Missouri, is situated just north of the Arkansas state line above Fulton County, Arkansas, a distance of about one hundred miles from William’s previous home in Arkansas. The place of Campbell’s Missouri residency, Spring Creek Township, is in the central-western part of the county. The community of Pottersville is located in the center of the township, approximately ten miles west of West Plains and the site of an early village and post office some of which may have been the product of Campbell’s masonry work. Seven miles west of the village, an early water grist mill operated on Spring Creek. The mill and village pre-dated the Civil War. Early settlers arriving in this area by 1832 found plentiful game; cured hides were among items traded at the nearest post at Rolla, about 110 miles away.
Howell County was decimated by guerilla warfare before, during and after the Civil War. Factional gangs roamed the countryside taking what they found and killing anyone who got in their way. A small, wooden courthouse built on the square in West Plains in 1859 was burned in 1862. In the fall of 1863, guerrillas burned all of West Plains, devastating the community; historians state not one person remained. The county was reorganized three years later.
William Campbell enlisted September 25, 1862, in Oregon County, Missouri. He served in Company E, 8th Battalion, Missouri Infantry of the Confederate States of America. According to various histories of the Civil War, the 8th was a re-organized unit originally formed in 1861 by Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson in a last-ditch effort to keep Missouri neutral in the looming conflict. Placed under the command of former Missouri Governor Sterling Price, the unit fought in the “Bull Run of the West,” the Battle of Wilson’s Creek on August 10, 1861. Subsequent battles included Dry Woods Creek. The unit disbanded in the summer of 1862, although several of its members participated in the Battle of Pea Ridge in Northwest Arkansas. The unit reformed as the 8th in late summer 1862, which was the time William joined.
After a four-day march in early fall 1862, the unit arrived at Spring River in Northwest Arkansas. Recruits were pressured to join other units. The commander, Colonel Mitchell, moved his unit to Camp Bragg near Batesville, and then traveled to Little Rock in an effort to improve his troops’ situation. Upon his return, he moved the unit to the camp of Col. William Coleman. Later in the fall, the unit joined with massed Confederate troops under the command of General T. C. Hindman. Among 9,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, and 22 pieces of artillery, Company E’s men marched from Van Buren north for a major engagement with Union forces in early December 1862. On the morning of December 7th, they broke camp at 4 a.m. and marched fifteen miles to pasture land at Prairie Grove, Arkansas. In the massive conflict that ensued there, the Missouri 8th reported none killed and twenty wounded. After the Battle of Prairie Grove, the 8th was assigned garrison duty at Ft. Pleasant, Arkansas for five months.
Few soldiers enjoyed garrison duty, monotonous in the best of times. Discipline and morale deteriorated with drinking, gambling, and fighting. It was during the garrison duty of the 8th Missouri Infantry that William last appears present in the official military record, April 30, 1863.
What Happened to William?
A story passed down by the descendants of John Randolph is that once the war ended, William was mustered out of the Army with a mule, his bedroll, and a little money. As he approached his house (location not named), he saw his wife standing on the porch with an infant in her arms. Without dismounting, he inquired as to the paternity of the child, to which she replied “Wes Wallace.” (It is not clear whether Mr. Wallace had taken up residence.) After a pause, William nodded his head, spat over the mule’s withers, and rode off. The story is that he went to Texas and was never heard from again.
Another oral tradition regarding his subsequent whereabouts, passed down through the family of William’s son James William, asserted that he deserted his Army post and fled to Scotland, where he married and raised another family.
Neither story is true. According to subsequent research and documentation, it is known that upon abandoning his service in the 8th Missouri, William did in fact go to Texas but not in the circumstance of departure as described in the family story. Whether in some official capacity with the Confederate forces or on his own, after April 30, 1863, he went to Red River County, Texas, where he joined his brother-in-law William Sira Norris “WSN” Lamberson. WSN operated a stagecoach stop for a stage line that ran to Missouri, likely along the old Southwest Trail. WSN was a blacksmith and driver and had enlisted in a Red River Volunteer Unit, the William B. Stout Company, on June 29, 1861, as a private. It is believed that WSN and William “ran guns” for the Confederacy. This may also have included a return trip south with cotton for French blockage runners.
In a letter written late in his life, WSN’s oldest son, Peter Abel Lamberson, states that “Wm. S. N. Lamberson died Jan 13 1864 (in south TX) in the confederate servis [sic] as a teamster.”
There is a historical marker at Clarksville, Red River County, TX which states:
“Across the street from this site and facing the county courthouse which was later (1885) torn down, the
Donoho Hotel and Stage Stand operated during the Civil War. Travel in those years was heavy. Soldiers arriving in Texas from Arkansas, Indian Territory, or elsewhere would catch the stage here for home. Many called by to give news to the Clarksville Standard, one of fewer than 20 Texas papers to be published throughout the war. The Standard’s emphasis on personal news from camps was valued by soldiers’ families… 31 stage lines in Confederate Texas hauled mail, soldiers, civilians. 26 made connections with railroads or steamships, expediting travel.”
Was this location part of WSN’s route? We don’t know. WSN Lamberson’s place of death and burial has not been confirmed, but it is believed that he died within the vast area called Kings Ranch. During the Civil War, this wealthy landowner controlled a large portion of southernmost Texas, an area was known as Kings Ranch. This landowner allowed supplies and guns to flow from Mexico and Gulf ports into the hands of rebel forces. When Union soldiers eventually raided the ranch, they killed most of the men there. It is believed that WSN died in this raid.
William Campbell survived this particular battle and lived until early the next year before suffering injuries somewhere south of Red River County. Injured, William became ill (reportedly measles) and tried to get home. He got as far as WSN’s house, where WSN’s widow Martha Jones Lamberson was dying of “brain fever.” She died February 26, 1865. Within a few days or maybe weeks, William also died.
WSN’s oldest son, Peter Abel Lamberson, was fifteen years old and would have been the one, perhaps assisted by neighbors, responsible for caring for and then burying his mother and uncle. He and the rest of Martha and WSN’s orphaned children were taken by the Jones family, none of whom knew how to get in touch with the Campbell family and so the information of William’s end did not get back to Melinda or their children.
According to Peter Lamberson’s later account, “…Uncal Bill discharged as Confederate soldier on acct bad health. Couldn’t get to his home in Mo, came to our hous in Red R. County and died in 1865.”
It may have been intentional on William’s part that he did not inform his wife Melinda of his whereabouts or military activity. The southern counties of Missouri and the northern counties of Arkansas where Malinda and four young children lived were the site of continuous conflict throughout the Civil War with both armies vying for control and conducting a scorched earth policy. In the region of Arkansas where William and Melinda had married, military activity centered on navigable portions of the White River. Eighteen officially-documented war engagements occurred in Independence County beginning with a skirmish at Batesville May 3, 1862. Two skirmishes occurred at Oil Trough Bottom. Expeditions, skirmishes, scouting, and attacks occurred throughout the area, including an attack at Jacksonport April 20, 1864. Likewise, farms and settlements in Howell County, Missouri were repeatedly burned and raided by both sides. Knowledge of William’s whereabouts would have been a liability for Melinda.
Other family historians disagree that once William went off to war, Lennie and the children were left to their own devices. The likelihood is good that he took time to help her set up an alternative place to reside and periodically visited at the new location with whatever resources he could manage. The idea that WSN’s stage route ventured as far north as the Missouri line lends credence to this idea.
According to family history (through descendants of William’s son James William), Lennie and the children hitchhiked to Newton County, Arkansas after William enlisted or, in some version, after the end of the war. At this point she would have been around 30 years old.
She was now the head of the household and had to make a home and provide for her family … Most of the country had been devastated by the Civil War … carpetbaggers often stole what little the people had left. The price of most things had skyrocketed and Confederate money held no value. She had a two-wheel cart for horse or ox. She had no house and no money with which to buy or build one, so she constructed a lean-to on (under) a cliff near a stream, probably using small logs, stones, and bark.”
Here the family had shelter from the winter’s cold. According to her grandson Dale Comb’s account, “she grew a garden and gathered what she could from the land. She was a good herbalist, knowing every flower, berry, green leaves, that were edible … She also shot squirrels and rabbits, and fished … She was a very resourceful person, not only provided for the physical needs of her children, but also their medical needs. She was a midwife or ‘granny woman.’” Her children would have been important helpers, especially oldest son John Randolph who would have been twelve by 1865.
Following the apparent disappearance of William, Melinda produced a child named Wesley Wallace /Wallis, but the exact date of birth is unknown. The assumption is that she married Wallace since she took that name, as shown in her record of marriage to her third husband John Briggs.
On December 29, 1873, “Lenny” Wallis age 40 married John Briggs age 52 in Independence County, Arkansas, joined by Justice of the Peace W. H. Palmer. In the 1880 census, the family is shown at Ash Grove, Green County, Missouri with John Brigg age 67, occupied as ‘miner,’ Malinda Brigg age 45, and stepson Wesley Wallace age eleven (yielding a birth year of 1869). The household also included two boarders. Briggs died in 1911.
The 1900 census for Independence County Arkansas lists Wes Wallace as age 35, with a birth date of April 1865. He was shown as a day laborer owning his own home, married 14 years, with a current wife of age 25, and with seven children but only three living. Wallace’s birth year has been recorded in various documents as 1862, 1865, and 1869.
Melinda lived later years of her life with her son James William and family in Woodruff County Arkansas, where she died March 3, 1922, age 94. She was buried in Pumpkin Bend Cemetery outside McCrory, Woodruff County, Arkansas in an unmarked grave.
Interview with John Carl Campbell 1988, at his home in Winslow Arkansas
Independence County, AR, Chancery Court Record A, Pgs 100 & 102
Year: 1860; Census Place: Glenwood, Mills, Iowa; Roll: M653_336; Page: 82; Family History Library Film: 803336
The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; NAI Title: U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934; NAI Number: T288; Record Group Title: Records of the Department of Veterans Affairs, 1773-2007; Record Group Number: 15; Series Title: U.S., Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934; Series Number: T288; Roll: 70 The
 “Texas was the only Confederate state to border a foreign country. Trade with Mexico made more materials available to Texas than to other states. Confederates managed to smuggle 320,000 bales or 144 million pounds of cotton through Mexican ports and past the Union blockade. In return for cotton, Texans received military supplies, medicines, dry goods, food, iron goods, liquor, coffee, and tobacco.” https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/civil-war
Brain fever is generally understood to have been encephalitis.
 Information in this paragraph from Judy Benson Nov 13 2003 email
The letter revealing the nature and place of his death was from WSN’s son Peter Abel Lamberson who was fifteen at the time of William’s death. “In 1980, Virgie Campbell Combs was corresponding with Wilma Benson, a descendant of Peter and Elizabeth Lamberson. Their grandson [Peter Abel], and a nephew of Melinda Lamberson Campbell, had written a couple of letters detailing some family history. These were found in an old trunk belonging to Wilma’s aunt.” This material provided by Harriet Brantley Lane, a descendant of William Campbell, in an email to this author dated Jan 13, 2005.
See “The Campbell Clan” by David Dale Combs later in this collection. (not included here)
We’ve learned that John Campbell, grandson of William Campbell of Virginia, moved to Kentucky. From there, records are not complete enough to convince us that the military service shown below is for John Campbell, the son of John who moved to Kentucky. But we follow what records we have found to lead us to John and Nancy Spencer Campbell, assumed parents of our William Campbell.
RECORDS OF JOHN CAMPBELL (1795-1850)
1812 War of 1812 Service Records, 1812-1815
John Campbell, Brown’s Reg’t, East Tennessee Vols. Rank: Private on induction and discharge. [Roll Box 33, Microfilm Publication M 602. Direct Data Capture, comp. U.S., War of 1812 Service Records, 1812-1815 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 1999. Original data: National Archives and Records Administration. Index to the Compiled Military Service Records for the Volunteer Soldiers Who Served During the War of 1812. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. M602, 234 rolls.]
Research from Clark Family Tree by kimberlyjolson [Ancestry.com] found John Campbell military records:
Military 28 Apr 1814, enlisted in 17th infantry for 5 yrs by Lieut Monday. Described as 5’7” w/ blue eyes and fair hair, light complexion, 21 yrs old, laborer from Hawkins Co TN.
1814 Marriage Record:
Nancy Spencer marriage to John W. Campbell Jr. Dec 6, 1814, in Christian Co KY. They were both 19 that year.
Ancestry.com. Kentucky, U.S., County Marriage Records, 1783-1965 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016. Original data: Marriage Records. Kentucky Marriages. Madison County Courthouse, Richmond, Kentucky
1820 U. S. Census Reconstructed Records, 1660-1820
Jno Campbell, male, Arkansas Territory: List, 27 Aug 1823, of suits in the territorial Supreme Court, When instituted: May 1823; No.: 9; Against whom instituted: Jno Campbell; In what capacity delinquent acted: Trespass on public land; Amou…” Document: Territorial Papers of the US; Volume Number: Vol 19; Page Number: 539; Family Number: 9
1821 Homestead and Cash Entry Patent
John Campbell, Arkansas Land Office, Document #23062. 160 acres 1 SE 5TH PM No 2S 2E 13, issued Dec 4, 1821 under Act May 6, 1812, Script Warrant Act of 1812.
1830 census at Walnut, Phillips Co., AR Territory
1 m 30-39, 2 f <5, 2 f 5-9, 1 f 10-14, 1 f 15-19, 1 f 30-39 Year: 1830; Census Place: Walnut, Phillips, Arkansas Territory; Series: M19; Roll: 5; Page: 124; Family History Library Film: 0002473
1821 – Dec 4: James Monroe, President of the United States of America, To all whom these presents shall come, Greeting: Know ye, that in, in pursuance of the Acts of Congress appropriating and granting land to the late Army of the United States, passed on and since the 6th day of May 1812, John Campbell having deposited in the General Land-Office a Warrant in his favor number 23,062, there is granted unto the said John Campbell, late a private in Baker’s Comp J of the 3rd Reg’mt of Infantry, a certain Tract of Land containing one hundred and sixty acres being in the South East quarter of Section 13 of Two 2 S in Range 2 east in the Tract appropriated (by the Acts aforesaid) for Military Bounties, in the Territory of Arkansas, To Have and To Hold the said quarter section of land with the appurtenances thereof, unto the said John Campbell and his heirs and assigns forever. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records; Washington D.C., USA; Federal Land Patents, State Volumes
1837- Aug 15, Deed at Phillips Co., AR, for NW ¼ of Section 11, Twp 2S, R 3 E., 160 acres. Helena Land Office. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records; Washington D.C., USA; Federal Land Patents, State Volumes
1837 – Aug 15, Deed at Lee Co., AR for W ½ SW ¼, Section 15, Twp 2N, R 4 E, 80 acres. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records; Washington D.C., USA; Federal Land Patents, State Volumes
1840 census at Richland Twp, Phillips Co, AR
1 m <5, 1 m 10-14, 1 m 40-49, 1 f <5, 1 f 10-14, 3 f 15-19, 1 f 40-49 Year: 1840; Census Place: Richland, Phillips, Arkansas; Roll: 19; Page: 57; Family History Library Film: 0002474
1850 census at Greenbrier Twp, Independence Co., AR – Taken Nov 1850 after John died, Nancy is head of household
1850 death record
John died April 12, 1850 of pneumonia at Independence Co., AR Records show date and place of birth: Tennessee 1795. Arkansas Historical Commission; Little Rock, Arkansas; U.S. Census Mortality Schedules, Arkansas, 1850-1880; Archive Roll Number: 1; Census Year: 1849; Census Place: Independence, Arkansas; Page: 365
Nancy Campbell executor for John’s estate. Arkansas Historical Commission; Little Rock, Arkansas; U.S. Census Mortality Schedules, Arkansas, 1850-1880; Archive Roll Number: 1; Census Year: 1849; Census Place: Independence, Arkansas; Page: 365
A letter of administration names Nancy, Wm Hightower, and Joseph P. James as bond for $800 on estate of John Campbell. Probate date 24 Jan 1851, Independence Co., AR. Letters of Administration, 1821-1845; Administrators and Guardians Bonds, 1847-1854.
An additional probate record from March 1851 states further proves that the John Campbell of Philips County is the same as the John Campbell of Independence County.
Received of Nancy Campbell as Administrator of the Estate of John Campbell deceased the sum of Eighteen dollars and Eighty cents (illegible) for my expenses on the River trip from Philips County and my Services in bringing honey from Philips County to Independence belonging to the Estate of John Campbell (illegible) this 20th May AD 1851 … Signed by Thomas (illegible, possibly ‘G’) Perry.
1850 census for Nancy Campbell
Taken at Greenbriar Twp, Indep Co in November 1850 shows her age 55 b KY with Sarah 20 b 1830, Rebecca 17, John H. 11, and two unrelated. Nancy’s kids all marked as born AR meaning they were in the state at least by 1830.
Ancestry family trees and other online resources name the oldest child of John and Nancy as Sarah born in 1830 while a few name Fanny b. 1828 as the oldest. However, the couple married in 1814 and surely did not wait until 1828 or 1830 to start a family. This gives plenty of room for William to be born in 1818-19.
Nancy died in 1852 without a will and her affairs were handled by next door neighbor Calvin Lacefield age 29, b KY, as shown in the 1850 census.
Administrators and Guardians Bonds and Letters, 1821-1902; Author: Arkansas. Probate Court (Independence County); Probate Place: Independence, Arkansas
Discussion of Problems
According to land records, John Campbell’s household in Phillips County 1830 census shows John Campbell household with NO SONS and six daughters. Our William was 10-12 years old in 1830. Other Campbell households in Phillips Co. show Samuel C. with two adults in their 20s, which is too young for William. The only other Campbell household in Phillips Co. is William Campbell’s, again too young for William.
Our William’s parents had to have been at least 20-25 when he was born, making their birth dates in the mid -1790s, or, more to the point, they would be in their 30s at the 1830 census. This fits well with John and Nancy both born 1795.
Rationale for strongly favoring these persons as William’s parents:
The 1850 census shows all these people in Greenbrier Township, Independence County, AR
A total of ten Campbells are listed in that county census for 1850, 6 in Greenbrier Twp:
Nancy Campbell household in Greenbrier, Township: Nancy 55 b KY, Sarah 20 b AR 1830, Rebecca 17 b AR 1833, John H. 11 b AR 1839. Nancy cannot read or write. Two lodgers include Joseph H Lane, farmer age 17, and Milla Lane age 8, both b. AR Year: 1850; Census Place: Greenbrier, Independence, Arkansas; Roll: 26; Page: 356b – Household #623
William Campbell household in Greenbrier Twp: William 32 b TN. Year: 1850; Census Place: Greenbrier, Independence, Arkansas; Roll: 26; Page: 357b—Household #637
Maud Campbell, age 25, place of birth not known, lives in household of Joab H. Peel age 36 b. KY, and his family including wife Martha A. age 27 b TN, and four Peel children ages 2 to 9 all b AR; as well as Martin Crisman age 31 b TN, occupied as ‘ferryman’. Year: 1850; Census Place: Greenbrier, Independence, Arkansas; Roll: 26; Page: 355b—Household #608
About ten miles away, in Ruddell Twp were the following Campbells:
John Campbell, age 50 b GA, in household of John E. Womack and family, working as ‘farmer.’ This John Campbell died in 1853 and Womack was executor. Womack’s wife Nancy was 41, too old to have been the daughter of our John and Nancy.
George W. Campbell, age 30, b TN, farmer. Living with wife Elizabeth 19 and son Robert A., infant.
I’m convinced that the Greenbrier Campbells are of the same family. It is obvious Nancy and John were a couple since she was appointed his executor upon his death. It’s also obvious that with a marriage in 1814, they didn’t wait until 1830 to start having children, which is what all the Ancestry records show, few if any of which were developed by an experienced genealogist.
I believe that Maud Campbell age 25 and Joab Peel’s wife Martha age 27 were John and Nancy’s daughters, and that William 32 was also their child, possibly the first. It’s also likely that George W. age 30 in Ruddell Twp. was a child of John and Nancy. There may have been another older sister who married a Lane whose children lived with Nancy in 1850.
It seems very likely that if George W. Campbell was the son of John Campbell of Georgia, as shown in the 1850 census for Ruddell Twp, he would be living in one of the Campbell households instead of the Womack household. I’m aware this does not constitute proof.
Considering the theoretical ancestry for John, it’s not surprising that he would have sons named William, George, and John.
Note: Ancestry family trees which show this John Campbell as married to Ellender Neel do not take into account that Nancy was the executor.
In this chapter, we narrow our investigation to a particular William Campbell and his possible immediate ancestors.
Chapter 3 – Campbells in the Americas
We now come to the most feasible ancestor of William’s lineage if we descend from Scottish nobility. As noted in the previous chapter, Duncan The Black was the son of Colin The Grey Campbell, 6th of Glenurchy and his wife Katherine Ruthven, and we’ll back up enough to focus on him before moving on.
But first let me just say that there is a rationale behind this seemingly rash assumption. At the time of these men’s lives, Patrick was a rare name. In my research, I’ve found only a few mentions of ‘Patrick” and in this time period, only in the House of Argyll, Clan Campbell. Duncan leads us to Patrick.
SIR DUNCAN “The Black” CAMPBELL
7 Aug 1550 -23 June 1631
Birth Place: Glenorchy, Argyllshire, Scotland Death Date: 23 Jun 1631 Death Place: Glenorchy, Lorn, Argyll, Scotland
Death Age: 80
Father: Colin “The Grey” Campbell Mother: Katherine Ruthven
Spouse: Jean/Janet Stewart (155?-1593), daughter of Earl John Stewart, 4th of Atholl & Lord Chancellor and Lady Elizabeth Gordon of Huntly. Married about December 1573 at Glenorchy.
Children: Margaret (1574-1598); Colin (1577-1640); Robert (1579-1657); Duncan (1580-1581); John (1581-1618); Jean (1584-1622); Archibald (1585-1640); Anne/Agnes (~1587-); Alexander Campbell (1589-1591); Duncan (1591-1591) Elizabeth (1593-1594).
Duncan was a busy fellow. After his wife Jean died in 1593, in October 1597, he married Lady Elizabeth Sinclair (1577-1654), daughter of Lord Henry Sinclair, 5th of Sinclair and Lady Elizabeth Forbes of Forbes. Their children were:
Patrick (1598-1648) on whom his father settled the lands of Edinample and others in 1624; John (1600-1631); William (1605-1620); Juliana (1606) Elizabeth (1608); Catharine (1610); Jean (1612).
Sowing his wild oats, Duncan also fathered two illegitimate sons by a woman named Janet Burdown, Patrick and John. More about these two later. These two wild oats sons are said to have been born before 1573 when Duncan married Lady Jean Stewart. Other records give Patrick’s birth date as 1592. [electricscotland.com/webclans/m/bighouse.pdf]
From The Scots Peerage, ed. By Sir James Balfour Paul, Vol II, Edinburgh, Scotland 1906, p 184-1889:
Sir Duncan Cambell of Glenurchy, the eldest son, born prior to 1555, received from his father dispositions of the lands of Port of Lochtay and others, and the barony of Finlarig, dated 5 March 1573-74, in implement of the contract of his marriage with Jean, daughter of John, Earl of Atholl, which was dated 18 November 1573. His father also disponed certain lands to that lady, in implement of said marriage contract, 20 November 1573.
He acquired the lands of Cretindewar and Craigvokin, 2 December 1575, bought from his brother, Archibald, as before mentioned a fourth part of Monzie, 21 August 1581.
On the occasion of the marriage of King James VI, he was knighted, about 17 May 1590.
He was one of the Lords of the Articles chosen to represent the barons in the Parliament held in Edinburgh in 1592, and was a commissioner for the smaller barons of Argyllshire to Parliament, 1593.
In 1594 he denied that he had any participation in the measures connected with the slaughter of the ‘Bonnie Earl of Moray.’
He also acquired from various parties certain lands in Menteith, Strathgartney and elsewhere.
King James feued [granted] to him the mill and mill lands of Mylnehorne.
On the resignation of Colin Campbell of Strachur, he acquired twenty-six merk lands in the barony of Glen Falloch; on the resignation of William Moncrieff of that Ilk, the lands of Culdares and Duneaves; and
On the resignation of William Moncrieff of that Ilk, the lands of Culdares and Duneaves
On the resignation of Alexander Balfour of Boghall, the lands of Emyrcrichane and Costinterrie in Menteith.
In 1599 he represented the smaller barons at the Convention of Estates of Parliament, and was a commissioner on the coin in that year.
He purchased from John, Earl of Atholl, and his wife, the lands of Wester Stuikis, on 18 September 1599.
He was warded in Edinburgh Castle in June 1601, “throch the occasion of certane fals leis and forged inventis,” and had to pay 40,000 merks to the courtiers of the King before he was released. Thereafter he went to England and Flanders for about a year.
Alexander Menzies of that Ilk, on 15 April 1602, sold to Sir Duncan in life rent, and his eldest son in fee, the lands of Morinche and others. He bought the lands of Drumquharg and others in the barony of Redgorton, 28 May 1611.
Two of his natural sons had letters of legitimation, 27 December 1614. They are Patrick and John.
He and his heirs-male were appointed foresters of Mamlorne, 22 July 1617
He acquired various lands in Strathgartney, 9 November 1618, and 31 October and 2 November 1618.
He purchased from Robert Robertson of Strowan, the four merk lands of Stronfernan, 21 December 1614, and the five merk lands of Candloch, 16 and 17 May 1616, and from Duncan Robertson, brother to Robert, Thometayvoir in Fernan, 14 August and ___ 1622.
He was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by patent dated 29 May 1625, and sealed 30 June 1627.
On 12 May 1627, King Charles I granted letters of remission to Sir Duncan, his sons Colin, Robert, and Patrick, and their natural brother, Patrick, for burning the town of Dewletter and the castle of Glenstrae in 1611, when engaged against the Clan Gregor.
Sir Duncan died at Balloch on 23 June 1631, aged eighty-one, and was buried in the chapel of Finlarig. His portrait, dated 1601, is given in the Black Book of Taymouth.
Duncan was chiefly known for his building of castles. In 1583 Duncan became the 7th Laird of Glenorchy at the death of his father, also inheriting Kilchurn Castle in Loch Awe, Argyll, Scotland and Balloch Castle in Kenmore, Perthshire, Scotland. It was also in 1583 that Duncan built Loch Dochart Castle in Stirlingshire, Scotland. Duncan now had three of his famed seven castles across Scotland.
“Loch Dochart is a fresh water loch fed by the River Fillan and connected to Loch Tay by the River Dochart. These waterways served as a major artery of movement and communication throughout the pre-industrial era and, via the River Tay, provided access all the way to the Firth of Tay and the North Sea. It was the presence of these excellent logistical links which prompted Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy to build the castle. It was one of several fortified residences – including Achallader, Barcaldine, Edinample, Finlarig and Monzie castles – raised by Duncan between 1585 and 1631.
“The castle was built on a small island at the western end of Loch Dochart. It was built over the site of an earlier religious house that was probably linked with St Fillan’s Priory, located four miles up-river. The main structure was a three story Tower House constructed from rubble with ashlar dressings. The rectangular main block was augmented with protruding stair towers on the north and south sides. A circular tower occupied the eastern corner at the base of which was a pit prison. A rectangular chimney that survives to its original height, projected out of the south side. The tower would have been surrounded by ancillary buildings and foundations of two of these structures survive. A landing place was constructed at the eastern end of the island.
“Duncan Campbell was followed by his son, Robert, who was the owner during the Wars of Three Kingdoms. Robert was an active Covenanter and supporter of the Scottish Government which prompted the Royalist commander, John McNab, to burn Loch Dochart Castle in 1646. It was not rebuilt following this destruction and drifted into ruin. In more recent years the castle has traditionally been linked with the Scottish outlaw Rob Roy MacGregor who had supported the 1689, 1715 and 1719 Jacobite rebellions. However, by this stage the castle was a gutted ruin and it is unlikely there was any actual link. During the late nineteenth century the ruins were consolidated.”
The rest of Duncan’s seven castles were: Finlarig, at the west end of Loch Tay and Barcaldine, in Benderloch. He obtained Achallader, on the north end of his lands, guarding the entrance to Rannoch, from the Fletcher Family by trickery in 1590. In 1590 Sir Duncan Campbell built Edinample Castle in Lochearnhead, Perthshire, Scotland. One year later in 1591 Duncan built Barcaldine Castle in Benderloch, Argyll, Scotland. At the age of 41 Duncan had six of his seven castles. In addition, he repaired and added to Kilchurn Castle. Because of this, he went by the name of ‘Duncan of the Castles.'” [Alastair Campbell, “A History of Clan Campbell,” vol. 2, p. 99 (Edinburgh Univ. Press; 2002)]
In 1609 Duncan had finished building his 7th and final castle, Finlarig Castle in Killin, Perthshire, Scotland, this one he made the family home. Duncan Campbell finally reached his goal, at the age of 59, of being able to cross his vast expanse of land from one end to the other being able to spend every night in his own castle on his own land.
He was known as Black Duncan, Black Duncan of the Cowl, and Black Duncan of the Castles
In 1593 Duncan Campbell was a Member of Parliament (MP).
– In 1617 Duncan was appointed Keeper of the Forest of Mamlorn, Bendaskerlie, Scotland.
– On 29 May 1625 Sir Duncan became 1st Baronet Campbell, of Glenorchy.
– Duncan was also one of the six guardians of the young and appointed Sheriff of Perth for life.
During his life Duncan was able to extend the family land holding from Barcaldine Caste in the West to Balloch Castle in the East reaching over 100 miles with 438,696 acres. Duncan was ruthless in his politics to gain what he wanted even to the point of trying to take control of the Clan Campbell by the murder of Campbell of Cawdor. Yet during all this he managed to remain in good favor with the monarchy of both Scotland and England.
At his death on 23 Jun 1631, Duncan Campbell was buried in his last castle Finlarig, which was the family home. According to the Black Book of Taymouth by Ines, Cosmo Nelson (1798-1874) published 1855, Duncan Campbell was buried in the Chapel Mausoleum.
The above information as well as the castle information was extracted from the following sources:
The Complete Baronetage
Burke’s Landed Gentry of Great Britain
The Black Book of Taymouth
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
PATRICK CAMPBELL +/-1592—March 28, 1678
Patrick Campbell, 1st of Barcaldine, was the ‘natural son’ [illegitimate] of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Baronet of Glenorchy and, allegedly, Janet Burdown. Born 1592 at Barcaldine, Ardchattan, Argyllshire, Scotland. He and his brother James were both legitimated on 27 Dec 1614. [Duncan and his wife Elizabeth Sinclair also legally parented a different Patrick b 1598 at Glenorchy and died before Dec 21, 1648 at Kilsyth. The legitimate Patrick married Margaret Campbell in 1625. Our narrative makes no further reference to the legitimate Patrick.]
From his father, the ‘natural’ Patrick received Inneerzeldies and other lands in Perthshire as well as Barcaldine Castle in Argyllshire. His nickname, “Para Dubh Beag,” means “Little Dark Pat.”
In 1620, Patrick married Annabel Campbell (1601-), daughter of Alexander Campbell, 7th captain of Dunstaffnage, and Ann Campbell 1564-. Patrick and Annabel had four children:
1. Jean Campbell
2. Giles Campbell
3. Annabella Campbell
4. John Campbell, 2nd of Barcaldine (c. 1625- c. 1690)
Patrick then married Bethia Murray (d 1632), daughter of William Murray of Ochtertyre and Barbara Pitcairn. http://www.thepeerage.com/p51908.htm #i519079 (According to these records, she married Patrick Murray, so…more than one) Patrick Campbell and Bethia had:
Colin Campbell, minister of Ardchattan (d. March 1726)
William “Dubh Beg” Campbell, minister of Balquhidder (1592-
Mary Campbell b 1640
Elizabeth Campbell (Married Sir John Campbell, 10th of Glenorchy, Baronet (1615-1677/1686) with children Elspeth; Patrick; Colin; William; Walter; Geills: Marjory
[From: The Peerage, M, #201145; Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage. 1898 ed. 60:252.]
At the death of their father Duncan, June 23, 1631, Patrick’s older brother, Sir Colin Campbell of Glenorchy became new clan chief. Patrick traded the lands of Innerzeldies with Colin for the lands of Barcaldine. Patrick’s half-brother John was actually the first Baillie of Barcaldine. He had been granted the lands of Auchintyre by Duncan, but left no descendants which is probably the reason for the exchange of lands between Patrick and Sir Colin.
In 1644 Patrick was given 666 pounds sterling by Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy to fund a unit of Barcaldine men to join Argyll’s troop into England against the Royalists at the start of the English Civil War. [From:The heraldry of the Campbells: with notes on all the males of the family, descriptions of the arms, page 55]
1633: Occupation — a Commissioner for the suppression of Clan Gregor
Patrick Campbell had an illegitimate son or grandson named Patrick Campbell who ended up in Barbados, Caribbean. Pure speculation. Chances are that the Barbados Patrick is no direct relation to Patrick Campbell, natural son of Duncan. But we will proceed with our tenuous theory.
“The Scottish connection with the Caribbean started in 1611 with the voyage to the West Indies of the Janet of Leith. It was not until after 1626, however, that Scots actually settled in the Caribbean. In 1627 King Charles I appointed a Scot, James Hay, Earl of Carlisle, as Governor of the Caribbees. This appointment led to a steady migration of Scots to Barbados and other islands. While there was a degree of voluntary emigration, the majority of the Scots in the West Indies arrived unwillingly. In 1654, Oliver Cromwell transported five hundred Scots prisoners-of-war. Felons or political undesirables, such as the Covenanters, were sent to the islands in chains directly from Scotland. In addition, the English Privy Council regularly received petitions from planters requesting Scottish indentured servants. Because of this, a steady stream of indentured servants sailed from Scottish and English ports to the West Indies.
“During the 1660s the Glasgow-based organization called the Company Trading to Virginia, the Caribbee Islands, Barbados, New England, St. Kitts, Montserrat, and Other Colonies in America established economic links with the West Indies. By the latter part of the seventeenth century, Scots merchants, planters, seafarers, and transportees were to be found throughout the English and Dutch colonies of the Caribbean. In total, it is believed that as many as 5,000 Scots settled temporarily or permanently in the Caribbean before the Act of Union in 1707. The settlement of Scots in the West Indies was important from the point of view both of the colonist and the home country. Many of the colonists used the islands as a stopping-off point before continuing on to the mainland of America, where they then settled. Alexander Hamilton and Theodore Roosevelt are numbered among those who descend from Scots who initially settled in the Caribbean.
“Barbados Redlegs . As the demand for sugar grew so did the demand for labor, and it became the custom to “transport” political dissidents, felons, and other undesirables as an alternative to hanging. Oliver Cromwell “barbadoed” hundreds, and these were later joined by the remnants of the Army of the Duke of Monmouth, sent there after the Battle of Sedgemoor by Judge Jeffreys in 1686. Few survived in the climate, and although some of their descendants can still be seen in Barbados, where they are called “Redlegs,” another source of labor was sought, and it was found in Africa.
“Colonization of Barbados began in February 1626/7 with the arrival of the William and Mary, containing eighty settlers and ten negro slaves. Other vessels immediately followed, and a list of inhabitants possessing over ten acres each names 758 settlers living there in 1638. (This list was published in William Duke, Memoirs of the First Settlement of the Island of Barbadoes (I 743), and has been reprinted in NEHGR XXXIX:132-44.)
“Henry Whistler’s journal for March 1654/5 records of Barbados, “This Island is inhabited with all sortes: with English, french, Duch, Scotes, Irish, Spaniards thay being lues: with Ingones and miserabell Negors borne to perpetuall slauery.”
“Civil strife in England brought successive waves of emigrants: discontented Scots under the Stuarts, Cromwell’s opponents, Protestants following the bloody Monmouth reprisals, indentured servants, transported “vagrants, rogues and idle persons”, and various sorts of opportunists. These brought the white population to over 20,000, where it remained until near the end of the century.
“In this, its ‘golden age”, Barbados became the richest colony in English America-thanks largely to Sephardic Jewish capital, Brazilian Dutch expertise, and a thriving slave trade-and its most populous, except for Massachusetts and Virginia.
“…According to A. D. Chandler, “In the years 1660 to 1667 some ten thousand people, mainly landless freemen and small farmers, left Barbados, followed in 1668 to 1672 by four to five thousand people, mainly of the planter class, and in 1678 to 1681 by another two thousand planters.” (“Expansion of Barbados”, in Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society XIII:II4, 124-34.)
“The generous provisions of the ‘Act to encourage the bringing in of Christian servants to this Island’ of June 20, 1696 brought in over 2,000 white servants. These were expected, at the end of their periods of indenture, to go off “as is customary … to Pensilvania, Carelena, and other Northern Colonies where provisions are more plenty and weather more temperate.” (C.O. 28:6.)”
Current research finds the following:
From: Caribbean, Select Births and Baptisms, 1590-1928
Name: Patric Campel
Arrival Year: 1679
Arrival Place: Barbados
Primary Immigrant: Campel, Patric
Family Members: Wife Ann
Source Publication Code: 3283
Annotation: Standard work. Includes lists of ships to Bermuda, Barbados, and continental North America. Indexes family names. Names of Jews are excerpted in Adler, no. 61. Care should be taken when using Hotten. There are two versions, one with accurate text and inde
Source Bibliography: HOTTEN, JOHN CAMDEN, editor. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality; Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. With Their Ages, the Localities Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in Which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars. From MSS. Preserved in the State
Ann [McCoy] Campbell, wife of Patrick Campbell was buried Aug 4, 1679, St. Michaels Parish, Barbados
Soon after Ann’s death, Patrick and John Campbell arrived in the Virginia colony. Were these the same Patrick and John?
Attempts to answer these questions have occupied multiple researchers. The following from Tidewater Virginia Families by Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis, published by Genealogical Publishing Company 1989. From Chapter 13 on the Campbells, pages 341-343:
Patrick Campbell probably came to Essex County after 1679. The death of his wife Ann occurred in St. Michael’s Parish, Barbados. “Ann Cambel wife of Patric buried 4 Aug 1679.” This may have been the same Patrick Campbell who owned land on Hoskins Creek [VA] and was identified as having married Sarah Kilman of Essex County in April 1691. She was the orphan of John Kilman, deceased, as her estate was held in the custody of Captain Thomas Goldman.
Patrick Campbell died by February 1695, on which date John Cammill and Sarah, his wife, purchased a moiety of land from Sarah’s sister, Ann (and husband Samuel Harware). [Moiety is a type of title to real estate in which the owner owns a share of the total land on the title and leases a certain portion of the land back for themselves from the other owner(s).] The land had been left them by their brother, George Kilman.
John Campbell was married first to Mary, sister of Sarah, who had died earlier. In 1697, John and Sarah sold the land to Henry Pickett that had belonged first to her father then to her brother. This land was “back in the woods” in the freshes of Pascatacon creek (later known as Cox’s creek.) Thomas Parker and John Gatewood were two of the witnesses to the deed. [more about the Kilman land]
John Campbell was living in 1705 when he witnessed a will in Essex County. He died before Feb 10, 1707 when “Sarah Camiell of the Parish of South Farnham in the County of Essex, widow’” sold 57 acres of land…
Later entries in the Essex Co court records show the following Campbell men and date of record: William 1707, John 1717, George 1717, Patrick 1718, and Alexander 1717 were in the county and transacted business. [describes land purchased]
[Text speculates that] James (estate appraised 1750), John. George II and Patrick were sons of Sarah.
Material by another researcher:
Patrick Campbell (no birth date-died before Oct 1691) married first to Sarah Kilman, d/o John Kilman of Essex Co, VA. They married in Essex Co VA on March 04, 1689/90. They had one child, Mary. Patrick died leaving Sarah Kilman Campbell a widow with one little girl.
John Campbell married Sarah’s sister, Mary Kilman before 1691, and had one son named John Campbell. But Mary Kilman Campbell died, leaving John Campbell a widower with a small son. So the two surviving partners married to keep the kids and the inheritance together. They married before October 11, 1692.
Genealogist Shirley Thompson Craft (STC) went to both Essex Co and Caroline Co VA and found all the marriage and land deeds and court documents which prove all of this.
There is not found a record of the country where Patrick and John left to come to Virginia. There is speculation Patrick is the same person named in the book, Barbados and Scotland Links 1627-1877 by David Dobson, as the widower of Ann Campbell who died in 1679 at St. Michael’s, Barbados.
Separately, but believed connected, by same researcher:
“A John Bayley was listed as a grantor in a land transaction in Old Rappahannock County in 1684. The entry in the court order book indicated that his real name was Camell, though he was forced by his brother to call himself Bayley. His name was legally changed to Camell. John Bayley was mentioned twice in the court orders of Essex County, but the entry concerning his name change was recorded in Embry’s Index and was not found in the court orders, nor was there any further.
“Did he arrive in the Colony as “Bayley?” I have found record of transport of “Jno. Bayley” in Feb. 1666; Jan. 1667; Oct. 1675; and 1678 in Cavaliers and Pioneers, but no record of Patrick Cammel on the same dates. Were John and Patrick brothers? Half-brothers? [Quoting STC in the following.]
According to (Old) Rappahannock Co., VA Orders (1683-1686) – “2 April 1684 – Whereas John Camell hath a long time been wrongfully called by the name of John Bayley, who came to this country as a lad, was forced by his brother (as he pretends) to change his name – therefore, he, the said Camell, did in open Court utterly deny and renounce the name of Bayley and do declare his name to be John Camell.”
[Denele’s comment: Barbados baptism record of John, son of Patrick is dated 1677. Eighteen years later would be 1695, so this is not the same person. That leaves the question of what happened to Patrick’s son John if the same Patrick came to VA with John, suggesting this is not the same Patrick. Or that Patrick and John were brothers, and Patrick’s son John had died? No record of his death. Or that the Patrick whose son John was baptized in 1677 was a different Patrick than the one who came to VA.]
Breaking this Order down, we know John Camell had to be of age before he could take this matter to Court on his own. So, we can estimate he was older than 18 years in 1684. This was important to him that he probably took this to court right away so did not own any land under the name of “John Bayley.”
The Order clearly states he came to this “country as a lad.” So, this tells us he was younger than 16 and dependent on his brother. Another obvious fact is we know he was not married. And, it clearly lets us know HE WAS NOT A PRISONER. [Many Scotsmen sent to the Caribbean were prisoners.]
It may appear that John Campbell and his brother Patrick entered Essex County from Barbados, Caribbean 1679. We believe that they got off the boat at Port Royal without having to show any immigration papers or any type of documentation. To travel to and from any of the British Colonies required no papers for British subjects until after the Revolutionary War.
Records for John Bayley/Campbell in VA include those named above, that he came to the colonies “as a lad” and that his brother, assumed to be Patrick, had forbidden him the last name of Campbell. Most compelling is the marriage record of Patrick and John Campbell with the Kilman sisters:
Patrick married Sarah Kilman in 1691. They had Mary. He died before 1695.
John married Sarah’s sister Mary Kilman. They had John. She also died.
John married Sarah before 1696-7, putting the children Mary and John in the same household and uniting properties and inheritance.
Name: John Cammill; Spouse’s Name: Sarah (his father’s 2nd wife) Marriage Date: 1696 Marriage Place: Old Rappahannock and Essex Counties Comment: Sarah, dau. John Kilman. Virginia, Compiled Marriages for Select Counties, Book D Original Source Page 74
Sarah and John had two children: George Thomas Campbell 1700 Essex, VA and William Campbell 1702, Essex, VA
Land records find John and Sarah’s properties:
1696/97 On Jan 20, John (X his mark) Camell, and Sarah his wife, of Southfarnham Parish, Essex County, for 2700 pounds of tobacco, convey to Henry Pickett , of the same parish and county, 100 acres in said Farnham parish, Essex county, back in the woods of Piscatacon Creek being part of land formerly belonging to John Kilman, father of the said Sarah Camell, and which descended on death of said John to his son George Kilman, by whose death it descended to his sister the said Sarah Camell; said land adjoins John Mitchell’s land, a branch called the Greene Swamp and the Beverdam Swamp. One of the witnesses to this deed was a Sarah Pickett.
1697 On May 10, John Campell and Sarah Kilman Campbell, his wife, appeared and acknowledged deed of sale of land to Henry Pickett … ordered recorded. The land, on Pascatacon Creek (later known as Cox’s Creek) was previously owned by George Kilman.
John Campbell died in 1707. Sarah remained in the same area and died in Caroline Co. in 1751. Wm Campbell petitioned the court to allow him to be the administrator of the estate. …
The business affairs of George and William Campbell were linked several times, and in 1752, Geo. had stored Wm’s tobacco for him. George II and his wife Caty [is this Elizabeth? Or Margaret?] sold land W. Deshazo in 1753. In 1767, William and his wife Elizabeth sold land to Anthony Thornton. It is thought that after 1767, both George II and William may have left the county, as their names did not seem to appear in the court records.
I have found ZERO additional records for William Campbell b 1702. However, there are compelling records for other Williams born 1730 and 1740, sons of George. We’re looking for John W. Campbell born 1730 who connects with previous ancestry. The 1730 John Campbell is most likely the son of the 1702 William Campbell, OR he could be the son of 1700 George.
John W. Campbell 1730-1805, King and Queen Court House, King and Queen, VA, son of William Campbell. To confuse matters even more thoroughly, William Campbell 1730-1805, believed brother to Whitaker Campbell 1727-1814, living in Old New Kent County, VA. Records show William gained 918 acres of land in 1782, a tract later called Shooter’s Hill. He married his first wife, Elizabeth Watkins and had John Campbell, who moved to Kentucky.
William Campbell, b 1740, was the son of George Campbell and Margaret __. He married Elizabeth Campbell and Mary Campbell. His children were John W. Campbell, Sr.; William Campbell; Elizabeth Campbell; James Campbell; Joseph Campbell and 6 others. Brother of Margaret Kincaid Tincher; Thomas Campbell; Archibald Campbell; James Campbell; Ruth Campbell; William Campbell; Joseph Campbell; Catherine Campbell; John Campbell.
Other records find William Campbell 1760-1806 married Elizabeth Watkins. This record states that William was the son of George 1700-1749 and Ann / Elizabeth Whitaker, who also had Whitaker b 1727 as brother to William 1730 and Joseph b 1740 linked by DNA to Whitaker. Which is absurd considering George died in 1749 and this Wm was born 11 years later. There was another George who died in 1777, so…
Possible Ancestry for John Campbell 1795-1850:
Is our ancestry from the 1740 William Campbell as the grandfather of John W. Campbell Jr. 1792, Hopkinsville, Christian Co, KY? Is the 1792 John W. Campbell the son of John W. Campbell Sr. and Elizabeth? It seems a definite ‘yes’ as John Sr. and wife Elizabeth’s children were Catherine 1784; George K. 1786; Benjamin P. 1787; William M. 1787; John W. 1792; Margaret 1796; Elizabeth Jane 1798.
Here’s the record:
John W. Campbell Sr. was son of William and Eliza Watkins Campbell. William died in 1805 of “sickness.” Records for William Campbell 1730-1805 King and Queen, VA, and Eliza Watkins 1736-1770 state that their son “John Campbell moved to Kentucky” Campbell-Watkins Records, (135) The Campbell Family,Old Kent County [Virginia]: Some Account of the Planters, Plantations, and Places” Vol. 1, p 494-495; Malcolm Harris 2006.
Is William the son of George Campbell (b 1700 Augusta Co. VA-1777 Amherst Co. VA) and Margaret Henderson?
Several records state George was son of Colonel Patrick Campbell I and Delilah Campbell. Husband of Margaret Henderson. Father of Archibald Campbell, Jr; Margaret Kincaid Tincher; Thomas Campbell; James Campbell; Ruth Campbell; William Campbell; Joseph Campbell; Catherine Campbell; John Campbell. [ Brother of Maj. Charles Campbell, of Beverley Manor; James Campbell; Griselda Abay McCutchen; Jane Campbell; William Campbell; Martha Campbell; Patrick Campbell, Jr.; Mary ‘Molly’ Christian (Campbell); Elizabeth Anderson and Margaret Sarah Steele. Half-brother of Percival Adam Campbell.]
We have not found any records verifying that George was the son of Patrick Campbell.
George’s will of May 5, 1777 named his wife Margret, daughter Catherine, son John, and other children Elizabeth, Archibald, George, Edley, Thomas, Margaret, and Ruth. Court records Amhurst Co, VA
Three children named in the will are not in the genealogical listing: Elizabeth, George, Edley. But then, three of those in the listing do not appear in the will: James, William, Joseph.
The will states that “in case any of the named children abscond or entirely go off before they come of age, then such child or children shall not receive on farthing.”
Of interest in the family of George are his brothers William and Patrick.
Or is this William the son of George Campbell (1700-1749), son of John Campbell and Sarah Kilman of Essex Co., VA?
George was husband of Elizabeth Catlett, father of James, William, and George Washington Campbell Jr.
George Sr.’s will was probated 10 Nov. 1749 naming James Campbell and Elizabeth, the widow, as executors. Elizabeth relinquished her right and an “heir-at-law” (not named) contested the probate, but the will was proved by William Deshazo, Morris Campbell, and Elinor Deshazo (wife of William Deshazo) per Caroline County court orders. Was the “heir-at-law” William or George (b. 1720)??? [Caroline Order Bk, p. 179 STC 2016]
His will was proved 11-10-1749. His wife Elizabeth was executor, along with James Campbell. Their sons were: George Campbell Jr (m. Caty) they moved to Piney River, Amherst Co VA; William Campbell (m. Elizabeth) who died in Amherst Co VA, November 1785; and James Campbell.
Ordered to appraise the state of George Campbell of Caroline Co, VA, Dec 1749, William Lawson, Charles Holloway, George Todd and William Buckner—pg 342 Tidewater Virginia Families by Virginia Lee Hutcheson Davis—Genealogy Publishing Co, Inc
U.S. and Canada, Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s Name: George Campbell Arrival year: 1743 Arrival Place: Virginia Primary Immigrant: Campbell, George Source Publication Code: 1229.10 Source Bibliography: COLDHAM, PETER WILSON. The Kings Passengers to Maryland and Virginia. Westminister, MD: Family Line Publications, 1997. 450p.
Virginia, Land, Marriage, and Probate Records, 1639-1850 Name: George Campbell Date: 19 Mar 1764 Location: Augusta Co., VA Property: 129 acres on the Pine Run on the south side of Beverley Manor in a line of Charles Campbell, and of James Robinson. Notes: This land record was originally published in Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia, 1745-1800. Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County by Lyman Chalkley. Remarks: 50 Description: Witness Book: 11-535
Note: it was the personal research of Shirley Thompson Craft, licensed genealogist, and descendant of George Campbell, as well as book author on her ancestors, who discovered in the summer of 2011 that this George Campbell 1720-1791 had originated in Caroline County, Virginia before moving into the area of Piney River, Amherst County, Virginia. Shirley Thompson Craft has been instrumental in groundbreaking discoveries, based on court documents and evidence which formed the basis of understanding about who the ancestors of George Campbell were.
Parents of George Campbell are JohnCampbell (no birth date-died abt 1706 VA) and Sarah Kilman.
The following are notations from what Essex and Caroline records STC has found so far to mention a William Campbell during the same generation as George (d. abt. 1749):
WILLIAM CAMPBELL (JOHN, UNKNOWN CAMMEL) Born abt. 1694 Essex Co., VA; died 1752 Caroline Co. VA
1743 Aug. 12 – Caroline County Order p. 212 – “Marear a negro girl belonging to William Cammell adjudged 12 years old.” No other comment.
9 July 1748 – Caroline Co. Order Book 1746-1654 – Action of debt. William Hunter agt. William Campbell p. 77.
15 July 1749 – Petition. John Sutherland agt. William Campbell. Judgment is granted the plaintiff for 2 pounds 1.3 current money .
1751 – Sarah Campbell died; William Campbell executor of her estate. Per Colonial Caroline by T. E. Campbell.
16 Dec 1752 – Suit on attachment. Robert Jackson agt. estate of William Campbell. The plaintiff proving his account, judgment is granted him 3 pounds current money. The sheriff attached a parcel of tobacco and fodder in the hands of George Campbell. It’s ordered the Sheriff to cause the tobacco to be sold. Ibid, p. 372. (Note: This George would have been George, Jr. because George, William’s brother died in 1749.)
1753 – William Campbell had died in late 1752 in Caroline Co. VA. Caroline Co. records name George Campbell, Jr. as executor of William’s estate.
8 Feb. 1753 – Suit on attachment. Mordica Abraham agt. the estate of William Camble. The plaintiff proving his account, judgment is granted him for 1 pound 17.9 current money. Ibid.
Full record of STC and other research on this lineage of Patrick/John/George is in my document “John Campbell aka Bailey”—Denele
Can we go further back than Patrick and John in Barbados? Not really. Many records attribute Patrick’s ancestry to Patrick Campbell (1592-1678), styled 1st of Barcaldine as discussed in the previous section. He was the ‘natural son’ [illegitimate] of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Baronet of Glenorchy, and there is great temptation to latch onto this ancestry. But there is every reason to find this implausible. For one, records in Scotland track the lifetime of Patrick 1592-1678 remaining in Scotland.
However, this does not rule out some kind of relationship between Barbados Patrick and Patrick the bastard son of Duncan. Perhaps Duncan’s Patrick had illegitimate issue of his own, not recorded in official documents. The most compelling evidence, aside from the name, is the time frame. Patrick son of Duncan was in his prime circa 1630 when the Barbados Patrick was allegedly born (according to one source). Taking this theory a bit further, Barbados Patrick and his brother John could easily have been sent there by Patrick son of Duncan in order to sidetrack any problems. They would have lived with their mother until of a certain age, then transported to a family plantation in Barbados.
There is nothing in the records of Virginia’s John Bailey/Bayley Campbell and Patrick Campbell that designates their ages. In fact, their death dates with their presumed births around 1670 means they died in their mid-30s, which is unusual. It would be more reasonable to assume an earlier birth date, and that they arrived in Barbados by 1650-1660.
It’s interesting to note that one entry in the Caribbean, Select Births and Baptisms, 1590-1928 lists Patrick Campbell was the father of John, baptized in 1677. In total, the text lists 17 entries for Campbell in the 1600s:
Alexander d 1677;
Alexander m 1689;
Alice wife of Patrick d 1691;
Ann wife of Patrick d 1679;
Daniel m 1663 to Mary Fenton;
Daniel m 1664 to Mary Gibbs,
Daniel husband to Anne, parents to Daniel 1674 and Charles 1677;
Daniel m 1697 to Avis Lord;
Dougal husband of Mary, parents of several children between 1660 and 1684, and a militiaman in 1679;
Duncan m 1671 to Susanna;
Edward m 1674;
James militiaman 1680;
John referred to in Daniel Campbell’s will 1668;
John militiaman 1679 (listed twice);
Patrick as noted above;
Robert militiaman 1679;
William mariner from Dumbarton to Barbados 1667
We must move on from this conundrum of Patrick, John, William and other Campbells which were thick on the ground in the newly won United States of America by the turn of the 19th century.